The Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Immunity Profile test contains 1 test with 3 biomarkers.
Brief Description: The MMR IgG Immunity Profile test is a blood test that measures the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies specific to the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) viruses. It provides a comprehensive assessment of an individual's immune response to these viral infections. The test measures the concentration of IgG antibodies against each of the three viruses separately, allowing for a detailed evaluation of immunity.
Also Known As: MMR Panel, Rubeola Test, Measles Virus Test, Measles Titer Test, Mumps Virus Test, Mumps Antibody test, Mumps Titer Test, German Measles test, 3 Day Measles Test, Three Day Measles Test, Rubella Titer Test, MMR Immune Status Test, Measles Mumps Rubella Test
Collection Method: Blood draw
Specimen Type: Serum
Test Preparation: No preparation required
When is an MMR Titer test ordered?
An MMR IgG Immunity Profile test may be ordered in the following situations:
Vaccine Assessment: The test is commonly performed to assess the effectiveness of the MMR vaccine. It is often ordered when there is uncertainty about an individual's immunization history or if proof of immunity is required for certain purposes, such as employment, school admission, or international travel.
Immunity Evaluation: The MMR IgG Immunity Profile test helps determine a person's immune status against measles, mumps, and rubella. It is particularly useful in situations where there is a suspected exposure to these viruses or a need to confirm immunity in individuals at higher risk, such as healthcare workers or pregnant women.
Preconception or Pregnancy Testing: Prior to pregnancy or during prenatal care, the MMR IgG Immunity Profile test may be ordered to assess a woman's immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella. Immunity is important as these viral infections can pose risks to both the mother and the developing fetus if contracted during pregnancy.
What does an MMR Titer blood test check for?
The viruses that cause measles and mumps belong to the Paramyxoviridae family. They both induce infections that normally go away within a few days, but in rare situations, they might lead to significant problems. Both can be avoided by being vaccinated. Antibodies developed in response to infection may be detected in the blood during measles and mumps testing. In addition, employing culture or a molecular approach such as polymerase chain reaction, the virus or its genetic material can be detected directly in a sample. These techniques can be used to a wide range of samples.
The number of instances of measles and mumps infections in the United States has dropped from several hundred thousand to a few hundred per year. Comprehensive measles and mumps immunization campaigns are to blame for the declines. While vaccines exist for each virus, combination vaccines, such as MMR, which protects against measles, mumps, and rubella all at once, are commonly used. In recent years, the majority of new cases in the United States have occurred in rare outbreaks, mostly among persons who have not been vaccinated, particularly those who have gone to places of the world where measles or mumps are more common.
Rubella, or "the German measles," is spread by respiratory secretions. After a one to two week incubation period, the virus damages cells in the lungs and the back of the throat, resulting in symptoms like a high fever, dry cough, red eyes, light sensitivity, a runny nose, sore throat, tiny white spots inside the mouth, and a rash that starts on the face and moves down the body to the trunk and legs.
The majority of patients recover in a few weeks, but up to 20% of them experience consequences such as ear infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, diarrhea, or, in rare cases, encephalitis or blindness. People who are malnourished, deficient in vitamin A, or have weakened immune systems are more likely to be affected. Women who are pregnant and infected with measles are more likely to have a miscarriage or go into labor prematurely.
Vaccination has greatly reduced the number of persons infected with measles in the United States and many other countries of the world, but the World Health Organization still considers measles to be a top cause of mortality in children under the age of five. Measles killed roughly 145,700 individuals worldwide in 2013, according to their estimates, the majority of whom were youngsters under the age of five.
The outcome of the immunization campaign In the United States, endemic measles was declared eradicated in 2000. Small outbreaks, however, continue to occur on a yearly basis. The majority of cases occur in people who are either unvaccinated or whose vaccination status is unknown, and most outbreaks are linked to travel to locations where measles outbreaks are happening.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 911 cases of measles were reported from 63 outbreaks between 2001 and 2011. With almost 600 cases recorded in 2014, the United States experienced the greatest number of measles cases in 20 years. Many were linked to visitors who had visited the Philippines, where there had been an unusually significant outbreak of over 50,000 cases.
The CDC, as well as the medical communities in the United States and around the world, remain worried and watchful. Measles is still endemic in many parts of the world, there is always the possibility of travelers spreading the disease, and small percentages of the population remain unvaccinated.
Mumps is a viral infection spread through saliva or respiratory secretions. An infected person often gets flu-like symptoms such as a headache, muscle aches, and fever after a 2 to 3 week incubation period, followed by parotitis. Mumps is usually a mild, self-limiting condition, but some patients can develop problems like temporary or permanent deafness, testicular or ovarian inflammation, pancreatitis, meningitis, or encephalitis.
Mumps, a milder condition than measles, is no longer as frequent as it once was, although it is still endemic in many regions of the world. Mumps cases in the United States range from 200 to 2,000 every year, according to the CDC. Outbreaks can happen in places where people interact frequently, such as classrooms, sports teams, or college dorms. Several tiny outbreaks occurred on college campuses in California, Maryland, and Virginia between 2011 and 2013, for example, although their spread was limited.
The rubella test detects antibodies in the blood that form as a result of a rubella infection or immunization. Rubella testing can be used for a variety of purposes, including:
- Ascertain that you are protected against the rubella virus.
- Find out if you've had an infection recently or in the past.
- Determine who has not been exposed to the virus and who has not received a vaccine.
- Check to see if all pregnant women and those planning to get pregnant have enough rubella antibodies to prevent infection.
Rubella is a viral infection that normally causes a slight fever and rash that lasts two to three days. The infection normally goes away on its own. Rubella, on the other hand, can cause major difficulties in the developing infant if a pregnant woman acquires it for the first time during the first three months of her pregnancy.
A rubella test may be ordered for anyone, pregnant or not, who is experiencing symptoms that a doctor believes are caused by a rubella infection. It may also be ordered for a newborn who is suspected of contracting rubella during pregnancy or who has congenital birth abnormalities that a doctor suspects are caused by the illness.
IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of rubella antibodies that lab tests can detect:
The IgM rubella antibody is the first to develop in the blood following exposure. Except in an infected infant, where it may be observed for several months to a year, the level of this protein rises and peaks in the blood within about 7 to 10 days after infection and then tapers off over the next few weeks.
The IgG rubella antibody takes a little longer to surface than the IgM, but once it does, it stays in the bloodstream for the rest of the patient's life, protecting them from re-infection. IgM rubella antibodies in the blood indicate a recent infection, whereas IgG antibodies can indicate a current or past rubella infection, or that a rubella vaccine was given and is giving appropriate protection.
The IgM rubella test is the gold standard for a fast rubella laboratory diagnosis. The presence of an increase in IgG rubella in blood samples taken when a person is sick and later as they recover can be used to confirm infection. Antibody testing differ between laboratories, and the state health agency can advise on available laboratory services and recommended tests.
Lab tests often ordered with an MMR Titer test:
When an MMR IgG Antibody test is ordered, it's often part of a broader assessment of immune status, especially for those needing confirmation of immunity (such as healthcare workers, pregnant women, or individuals traveling to areas where these diseases are common). Here are some tests commonly ordered alongside it:
Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) Antibody (IgG):
- Purpose: To determine immunity against the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and shingles.
- Why Is It Ordered: Often part of immune status evaluation, especially in healthcare workers or in individuals who might be at risk for severe infection.
Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (Anti-HBs):
- Purpose: To check for immunity to hepatitis B, either due to vaccination or past infection.
- Why Is It Ordered: For individuals in healthcare settings or those at risk of hepatitis B exposure, confirming immunity is crucial.
Tetanus and Diphtheria Antibodies:
- Purpose: To assess immunity against tetanus and diphtheria.
- Why Is It Ordered: To confirm protection against these diseases, particularly for those who may not have received booster vaccines as adults.
Complete Blood Count (CBC) with Differential:
- Purpose: Provides a broad picture of overall blood health and immune cell status.
- Why Is It Ordered: To assess general health and detect conditions like immunodeficiency or other underlying health issues.
Quantiferon-TB Gold test:
- Purpose: To test for exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
- Why Is It Ordered: Often included in health screenings, especially for those working in healthcare or other high-risk environments.
IgG Subclass Testing:
- Purpose: To evaluate specific aspects of the immune system.
- Why Is It Ordered: If there are concerns about an individual's immune response, particularly if they have a history of recurrent infections or poor vaccine response.
These tests, when ordered alongside an MMR IgG Antibody test, provide a comprehensive view of an individual's immune status and help in assessing susceptibility to or protection against various infectious diseases. The specific combination of tests will depend on the individual's health history, occupation, travel plans, and other risk factors
Conditions where an MMR Titer test is recommened:
An MMR IgG Immunity Profile test may be required in the following situations:
Suspected or Confirmed Exposure: If an individual has been in close contact with someone infected with measles, mumps, or rubella, the MMR IgG Immunity Profile test can help determine their immune status and the need for further intervention, such as vaccination or post-exposure prophylaxis.
Preconception or Pregnancy: It is crucial for women of childbearing age to have immunity against measles, mumps, and rubella, as these infections can be harmful during pregnancy. The MMR IgG Immunity Profile test helps assess immunity before conception or during prenatal care.
Evaluation of Immunization Status: The test is valuable in cases where vaccination history is unclear or incomplete. It confirms if an individual has developed protective antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella after receivingthe MMR vaccine.
How does my health care provider use an MMR Titer test?
Health care providers use the results of an MMR IgG Immunity Profile test in the following ways:
Assessment of Immunity: The test determines the individual's immune status against measles, mumps, and rubella. If the IgG antibody levels are above the protective threshold, it indicates immunity either through vaccination or prior infection.
Vaccine Effectiveness: The MMR IgG Immunity Profile test helps evaluate the effectiveness of the MMR vaccine. Adequate levels of IgG antibodies indicate a successful immune response to the vaccine.
Guidance for Vaccination: In cases where the IgG antibody levels are below the protective threshold, indicating insufficient immunity, health care providers may recommend revaccination to enhance protection against measles, mumps, and rubella.
Pregnancy Planning: For women planning to conceive or currently pregnant, the MMR IgG Immunity Profile test assesses immunity to ensure protection against these viral infections during pregnancy. If immunity is lacking, vaccination may be recommended before conception or after delivery.
Outbreak Management: During outbreaks of measles, mumps, or rubella, the MMR IgG Immunity Profile test helps identify individuals who may be susceptible to the infections. This information guides public health interventions, such as targeted vaccination campaigns and containment strategies.
Occupational Requirements: Certain professions, such as healthcare workers or laboratory personnel, may require proof of immunity against measles, mumps, and rubella. The MMR IgG Immunity Profile test helps fulfill these requirements by providing quantitative evidence of immunity.
It is important to note that the interpretation of MMR IgG Immunity Profile test results should be done by qualified health care providers. They consider the individual's medical history, vaccination status, and specific clinical circumstances to make informed decisions regarding immunization and disease prevention.
What do my MMR test results mean?
When IgM antibodies to measles, mumps, or rubella are present in someone who hasn't been vaccinated recently, it's likely that they have a current measles, mumps, or rubella infection. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present, or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody testing, it is likely that the person is now infected or has recently been infected with measles, mumps, or rubella.
When a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill possesses measles, mumps, and rubella IgG antibodies, that individual is protected from infection. A person is not deemed immune to the viruses if they do not have MMR IgG antibodies. This could be due to the fact that the person hasn't been exposed to the viruses, the IgG hasn't had enough time to mature, or the person doesn't have a typical antibody response.
Most Common Questions About the MMR Titer test:
Understanding the MMR Titer Test
What is the MMR Titer test?
The MMR Titer test is a blood test that checks for immunity against measles, mumps, and rubella by measuring the levels of specific antibodies (IgG) in your blood. These antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to an infection or vaccination.
Why is the MMR Titer test performed?
The MMR Titer test is usually performed to confirm immunity status, especially in individuals who cannot find their vaccination records, or in healthcare workers, or people traveling to regions where these diseases are common. It can also be used to verify immunity in people who were vaccinated a long time ago since immunity can wane over time.
Interpreting MMR Titer Results
What do positive MMR Titer test results mean?
Positive MMR Titer test results typically mean that the individual has sufficient antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella, indicating immunity. This can be due to previous vaccination or having had the diseases.
What do negative MMR Titer test results mean?
Negative MMR Titer test results generally mean that the individual has low or no antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella, indicating a lack of immunity. It may suggest that the individual never had the diseases or vaccinations, or that immunity has waned.
Can the MMR Titer test differentiate between vaccine-induced immunity and immunity from infection?
No, the MMR Titer test does not distinguish between antibodies produced in response to vaccination and those produced in response to natural infection. It only measures the presence and level of specific antibodies.
MMR Titer and Vaccination
Is the MMR Titer test necessary if I've been vaccinated?
The MMR Titer test is not typically necessary if you've been vaccinated and have documentation of your vaccination. However, certain populations, such as healthcare workers, may be required to demonstrate immunity regardless of vaccination status.
Can the MMR Titer test verify if a recent MMR vaccination was successful?
Yes, the MMR Titer test can verify if a recent MMR vaccination was successful by checking if your body has produced enough antibodies to the three diseases.
Why might someone with a documented MMR vaccination still require an MMR Titer test?
Some individuals may still require an MMR Titer test despite a documented MMR vaccination if they belong to groups where ensuring immunity is critical, such as healthcare workers or individuals planning to travel to areas where outbreaks are common.
MMR Titer and Disease Exposure
Is the MMR Titer test used to diagnose an active measles, mumps, or rubella infection?
The MMR Titer test is not typically used to diagnose an active infection of these diseases. The presence of IgG antibodies indicates past exposure or vaccination, while IgM antibodies, not typically part of the MMR Titer test, would indicate a recent or active infection.
Can the MMR Titer test be used to confirm a past infection?
Yes, the presence of specific IgG antibodies in an MMR Titer test can confirm past exposure and infection with measles, mumps, or rubella.
Should pregnant women get the MMR Titer test?
Yes, it is recommended that pregnant women get the MMR Titer test as part of preconception care or early in pregnancy because rubella infection during pregnancy can lead to severe birth defects. If a woman is found to be non-immune, the MMR vaccine should be given postpartum.
Should international travelers get the MMR Titer test?
International travelers, especially those going to areas with known outbreaks of these diseases, should consider getting the MMR Titer test to confirm immunity.
How does the MMR Titer test inform decisions regarding revaccination?
If MMR Titer test results show low or no immunity, revaccination with the MMR vaccine may be recommended, especially for individuals in high-risk groups, such as healthcare workers or international travelers.
MMR Titer and Other Tests
How does the MMR Titer test compare with the MMR vaccine documentation for proving immunity?
While both MMR vaccine documentation and the MMR Titer test can provide proof of immunity, the MMR Titer test provides a direct measure of the immune response, which may be necessary in some cases, such as waning immunity or lost vaccination records.
How does the MMR Titer test relate to the MMR IgM test?
The MMR Titer test typically measures IgG antibodies, indicating past exposure or immunity, while the MMR IgM test detects IgM antibodies, which typically indicates a recent or active infection.
Are there other tests besides the MMR Titer test to check for immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella?
While the MMR Titer test is the most common test for checking immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella, individual titer tests can also be performed for each disease.
Future of MMR Titer Testing
Are there new technologies that might replace the MMR Titer test in the future?
At present, there's no known technology on the horizon to replace the MMR Titer test, but ongoing research may lead to advancements in the future.
Could genetic testing influence how the MMR Titer test is used in the future?
While genetic testing can provide information about susceptibility to some diseases, it cannot currently determine immunity to measles, mumps, or rubella. Therefore, it's unlikely to affect the use of the MMR Titer test in the near future.
How might advances in personalized medicine affect the use of the MMR Titer test?
Personalized medicine mainly affects treatment decisions and prevention strategies, and its impact on the use of the MMR Titer test would likely be limited. However, understanding an individual's specific immune response may help refine future immunity testing strategies.
Could the MMR Titer test ever be used as a universal screening tool?
Currently, the MMR Titer test is not recommended as a universal screening tool due to its cost and because the majority of individuals are vaccinated during childhood. However, it is used in specific circumstances where confirming immunity is important.
How might changes in vaccination rates affect the use of the MMR Titer test?
If vaccination rates decrease, the MMR Titer test could become more prevalent to identify susceptible individuals during outbreak situations.
What could be the effect of more prevalent measles, mumps, or rubella outbreaks on the use of the MMR Titer test?
Increased disease outbreaks would likely increase the use of the MMR Titer test, especially in populations at risk for exposure, to confirm immunity and prevent further spread.
Could the MMR Titer test be used to evaluate the effectiveness of new MMR vaccines?
Yes, the MMR Titer test could be used in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of new MMR vaccines by measuring the immune response they generate.
Are there any potential future uses of the MMR Titer test that researchers are currently investigating?
Research is always ongoing, and while the primary use of the MMR Titer test is to confirm immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella, researchers may find additional uses for this test in the future.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.