Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) (LDH) Isoenzyme Panel

The Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) (LDH) Isoenzyme Panel test contains 1 test with 8 biomarkers.

Brief Description: The Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test is a diagnostic tool that offers crucial insights into various health conditions by analyzing the different forms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) present in the blood. This test aids in identifying potential underlying issues, particularly those affecting the heart, liver, muscles, and other organs.

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When and Why the Test is Ordered:

Healthcare providers may order a Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test when assessing patients with symptoms or conditions that could involve tissue damage or dysfunction in organs such as the heart, liver, kidneys, and muscles. The test is often used to help diagnose or monitor conditions like myocardial infarction (heart attack), liver disease, anemia, and muscular dystrophy.

What the Test Checks For:

The Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test examines the various forms (isoenzymes) of lactate dehydrogenase in the blood. LDH is an enzyme found in cells that plays a crucial role in energy production. When cells are damaged or destroyed, LDH is released into the bloodstream, and the different isoenzymes can provide information about the source of the damage. For instance, specific isoenzymes are associated with different organs such as the heart, liver, and muscles.

Other Lab Tests and Their Purpose:

A Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Isoenzyme Panel is used to evaluate the distribution of LDH isoenzymes in the blood. LDH is an enzyme involved in energy production and is found in almost all body tissues, with different isoenzymes predominating in specific tissues. The LDH Isoenzyme Panel can help diagnose and monitor certain conditions, including liver diseases, myocardial infarction, hemolytic anemia, and certain cancers. When an LDH Isoenzyme Panel is ordered, it's often part of a broader evaluation of these conditions. Here are some tests commonly ordered alongside it:

  1. Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH):

    • Purpose: To measure the overall level of LDH in the blood.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To assess tissue damage or disease, as elevated total LDH can indicate various conditions including liver disease, hemolysis, or tumor lysis syndrome.
  2. Complete Blood Count (CBC) with Differential:

    • Purpose: To evaluate overall blood health, including red and white blood cells and platelets.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To check for signs of anemia, particularly hemolytic anemia, and other blood-related disorders.
  3. Liver Function Test:

    • Purpose: To assess liver health.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To evaluate liver function and to help determine if elevated LDH is due to liver disease.
  4. Creatine Kinase (CK):

    • Purpose: To measure the level of CK, an enzyme found in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To help differentiate between heart and muscle damage and other sources of elevated LDH.
  5. Electrolyte Panel:

    • Purpose: To measure key electrolytes in the blood.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To evaluate for electrolyte imbalances, which can be associated with conditions that also cause changes in LDH levels.
  6. Bilirubin Test (Total and Direct):

    • Purpose: To measure bilirubin levels.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To assess liver function and for signs of hemolysis, as elevated bilirubin can be seen in liver diseases and hemolytic anemias.
  7. Cardiac Markers (Troponin, BNP):

    • Purpose: To detect markers of heart injury.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To rule out or confirm myocardial infarction or cardiac damage if there is suspicion based on LDH isoenzyme patterns.
  8. Uric Acid:

    • Purpose: To measure the level of uric acid in the blood.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To assess for tumor lysis syndrome or gout, conditions that can be associated with changes in LDH levels.

These tests, when ordered alongside an LDH Isoenzyme Panel, provide a comprehensive evaluation of potential causes of elevated LDH levels, including tissue damage, hemolytic anemia, liver disease, and myocardial infarction. They are crucial for diagnosing the underlying cause of LDH elevation, assessing the extent of organ involvement, and guiding appropriate treatment. The specific combination of tests will depend on the individual’s symptoms, clinical presentation, and medical history.

Conditions and Diseases Requiring the Test:

The Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test is commonly used to diagnose or monitor a range of conditions, including:

  • Myocardial Infarction: Elevated levels of specific LDH isoenzymes can indicate damage to heart muscle cells due to a heart attack.

  • Liver Disease: Liver conditions such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver tumors can be detected by analyzing LDH isoenzymes.

  • Muscular Dystrophy: This test can aid in diagnosing muscle-related disorders by assessing specific isoenzymes released from damaged muscle cells.

Utilization of Test Results:

Healthcare providers utilize the results of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test to:

  • Diagnose Conditions: Elevated levels of specific isoenzymes help identify the source of tissue damage or dysfunction, assisting in the diagnosis of various health conditions.

  • Monitor Disease Progression: For individuals with known conditions, periodic testing can help track the progression of diseases and the effectiveness of treatments.

  • Guide Treatment Plans: Results aid in designing tailored treatment plans based on the specific organ involvement and extent of tissue damage.

  • Predict Prognosis: The test results, combined with clinical findings, can help predict the course and prognosis of certain conditions.

In conclusion, the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test is a valuable tool in diagnosing and monitoring various health conditions by assessing different forms of LDH in the blood. By analyzing these isoenzymes, healthcare providers gain insights into potential organ damage or dysfunction, guiding appropriate interventions and improving patient outcomes.

Most Common Questions About the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test:

Purpose and Applications

What is the primary objective of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test?

The primary objective of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test is to determine the levels of the different forms (isoenzymes) of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the blood. These isoenzymes are located in various tissues throughout the body, and by measuring their levels, healthcare providers can get clues about the location and extent of tissue damage.

Why is the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test ordered?

The test is typically ordered when a total LDH test shows elevated levels, suggesting cell damage or cell death. By determining which specific isoenzyme is elevated, the test can help identify the specific organ or tissue involved.

Clinical Significance

What conditions or diseases can the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test help diagnose?

The Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test can assist in diagnosing a variety of conditions based on the tissue location of each isoenzyme, including myocardial infarction (heart attack), pulmonary diseases, liver diseases, muscle diseases, and certain types of anemia, among others.

How do results from the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test contribute to treatment decisions?

By pinpointing the specific tissue or organ involved, healthcare providers can tailor treatment to address the underlying cause of the elevated LDH. For instance, if the test indicates heart tissue damage, timely interventions can be initiated to address cardiac issues.

Interpretation

How is the distribution of LDH isoenzymes typically presented in the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test results?

The distribution is typically presented in a percentage form, reflecting the proportion of each of the five LDH isoenzymes (LDH-1 through LDH-5) in the blood sample. Elevated percentages of specific isoenzymes can indicate damage to particular organs or tissues.

How do LDH isoenzyme patterns differ among various conditions?

Different conditions cause elevations in specific LDH isoenzymes. For instance, an elevation in LDH-1 often indicates heart damage, while elevated LDH-5 may suggest liver damage.

Clinical Limitations

Are there any conditions that can cause global elevations in all LDH isoenzymes as per the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test?

Yes, some conditions, like shock or multiple organ failure, can cause a global elevation in all LDH isoenzymes, making it challenging to pinpoint a specific tissue or organ of concern.

Are there any conditions where the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Panel test might not be the best diagnostic tool?

While the test is valuable, it may not always be the primary diagnostic tool for all conditions. For instance, newer, more specific cardiac biomarkers have largely replaced LDH-1 for diagnosing myocardial infarction.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

The following is a list of what is included in the item above. Click the test(s) below to view what biomarkers are measured along with an explanation of what the biomarker is measuring.

Also known as: Lactate Dehydrogenase LD Isoenzyme Panel

Ld

LDH isoenzymes is a test to check how much of the different types of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are in the blood. Measurement of LDH isoenzymes helps determine the location of any tissue damage. LDH is found in many body tissues such as the heart, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, blood cells, and lungs. LDH exists in 5 forms, which differ slightly in structure. LDH-1 is found primarily in heart muscle and red blood cells. LDH-2 is concentrated in white blood cells. LDH-3 is highest in the lung. LDH-4 is highest in the kidney, placenta, and pancreas. LDH-5 is highest in the liver and skeletal muscle.

LD

Ld 1

LD 1/LD 2 RATIO

Ld 2

Ld 3

Ld 4

Ld 5

*Process times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. The lab may need additional time due to weather, holidays, confirmation/repeat testing, or equipment maintenance.

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