HEPATIC PANEL

The HEPATIC PANEL panel contains 2 tests with 11 biomarkers.

Brief Description: The Hepatic Panel is a comprehensive set of blood tests designed to evaluate the function of the liver. This panel measures various enzymes, proteins, and substances in the blood that are either produced by the liver or released when liver cells are damaged. It provides crucial information about the liver's condition, aiding in the diagnosis, monitoring, and differentiation of liver disorders.

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When and Why the Hepatic Panel May Be Ordered

Healthcare professionals may order this panel when symptoms suggest liver disease, such as jaundice, dark urine, nausea, or abdominal pain. It's also used to monitor the progression of known liver diseases, assess the impact of medications on the liver, or as part of a routine health checkup.

What the Hepatic Panel Checks For

Each test within the Hepatic Panel offers specific insights into liver health:

  • Albumin: Measures the main protein made by the liver, indicative of the liver's synthetic function.
  • Albumin/Globulin Ratio: Assesses the balance between albumin and globulin proteins, providing clues about liver function and nutritional status.
  • Alkaline Phosphatase: Elevated levels may indicate bile duct obstruction or liver injury.
  • Alanine Aminotransferase: An enzyme found in the liver that, when elevated, indicates liver damage.
  • Aspartate Aminotransferase: Another enzyme that, when high, can signify liver or muscle damage.
  • Bilirubin Direct, Indirect & Total: These tests measure different forms of bilirubin to assess liver's ability to process and excrete this substance.
  • Globulin: A group of proteins, the levels of which can be affected by liver function.
  • Protein Total: The sum of albumin and globulin, providing an overview of protein synthesis and liver function.
  • Gamma Glutamyle Transferase: An enzyme that, when elevated, often indicates bile duct problems or alcohol abuse.

Detectable Conditions and Diseases

The Hepatic Panel is instrumental in identifying a range of liver conditions:

  • Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, often due to viral infections, where elevated ALT and AST levels are key indicators.
  • Cirrhosis: A late stage of scarring of the liver, characterized by altered levels of albumin, globulin, and liver enzymes.
  • Fatty Liver Disease: Can be suggested by abnormal liver enzyme levels in the absence of alcohol abuse.
  • Biliary Obstruction: Blocked bile ducts, indicated by elevated alkaline phosphatase and direct bilirubin levels.
  • Liver Cancer: Can cause significant alterations in the hepatic panel results, particularly in the advanced stages.

Clinical Application of Panel Results

Healthcare professionals analyze the Hepatic Panel results to make informed decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment plans, and monitoring of liver-related conditions. Abnormal results can prompt further diagnostic testing, such as imaging studies or liver biopsy, and guide treatment strategies, including medication adjustments and lifestyle changes.

The Hepatic Panel is a vital tool in assessing liver health, offering a snapshot of liver function and damage through a range of biomarkers. Its comprehensive nature allows for early detection of liver issues, informed treatment decisions, and ongoing monitoring of liver disease progression or resolution, ultimately contributing to better patient outcomes.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

The following is a list of what is included in the item above. Click the test(s) below to view what biomarkers are measured along with an explanation of what the biomarker is measuring.

Also known as: Gamma Glutamyl Transferase GGT, Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase, Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase, Gamma-GT, GGTP, GTP

Ggt

Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a test to measure the amount of the enzyme GGT in the blood.

Also known as: LFTs, Liver Function Tests, Liver Panel

Albumin

Albumin is a protein made by the liver. A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood.

Albumin/Globulin Ratio

The ratio of albumin to globulin (A/G ratio) is calculated from measured albumin and calculated globulin (total protein - albumin). Normally, there is a little more albumin than globulins, giving a normal A/G ratio of slightly over 1. Because disease states affect the relative amounts of albumin and globulin, the A/G ratio may provide a clue as to the cause of the change in protein levels. A low A/G ratio may reflect overproduction of globulins, such as seen in multiple myeloma or autoimmune diseases, or underproduction of albumin, such as may occur with cirrhosis, or selective loss of albumin from the circulation, as may occur with kidney disease (nephrotic syndrome). A high A/G ratio suggests underproduction of immunoglobulins as may be seen in some genetic deficiencies and in some leukemias. More specific tests, such as liver enzyme tests and serum protein electrophoresis, must be performed to make an accurate diagnosis. With a low total protein that is due to plasma expansion (dilution of the blood), the A/G ratio will typically be normal because both albumin and globulin will be diluted to the same extent.

Alkaline Phosphatase

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. Tissues with higher amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone.

Alt

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver. Injury to the liver results in release of the substance into the blood.

AST

AST (aspartate aminotransferase) is an enzyme found in high amounts in liver, heart, and muscle cells. It is also found in lesser amounts in other tissues.

Bilirubin, Direct

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.

Bilirubin, Indirect

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.

Bilirubin, Total

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.

Globulin

Globulins is the collective term for most blood proteins other than albumin. Identifying the types of globulins can help diagnose certain disorders. Globulins are roughly divided into three groups: alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. Gamma globulines include various types of antibodies such as immunoglobulins (Ig) M, G, and A.

Protein, Total

The total protein is the total amount of two classes of proteins, albumin and globulin that are found in the fluid portion of your blood. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. Your albumin helps prevent fluid from leaking out of blood vessels and your globulins are an important part of your immune system.
*Process times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. The lab may need additional time due to weather, holidays, confirmation/repeat testing, or equipment maintenance.

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