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Elevated GGT is found in all forms of liver disease. Measurement of GGT is used in the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis, as well as primary and secondary liver tumors. It is more sensitive than alkaline phosphatase, the transaminases, and leucine aminopeptidase in detecting obstructive jaundice, cholangitis, and cholecystitis. Normal levels of GGT are seen in skeletal diseases; thus, GGT in serum can be used to ascertain whether a disease, suggested by elevated alkaline phosphatase, is skeletal or hepatobiliary.

Serum glucose levels may be abnormally high (hyperglycemia) or abnormally low (hypoglycemia). Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, idiopathic hypoglycemia, and pancreatic islet cell neoplasm.

A Hemoglobin (Hb) A1c Blood Test evaluates the average amount of glucose in the blood. The A1c test will help determine whether you are at a higher risk of developing diabetes; to help diagnose diabetes and prediabetes; to monitor diabetes and to aid in treatment decisions.

To assist with control of blood glucose levels, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended glycated hemoglobin testing (HbA1c) twice a year for patients with stable glycemia, and quarterly for patients with poor glucose control. Interpretative ranges are based on ADA guidelines.


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Elevated levels of homocysteine are observed in patients at risk for coronary heart disease and stroke.

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For diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes and insulin-secreting tumors.

Serum iron quantification is useful in confirming the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia or hemochromatosis. The measurement of total iron binding in the same specimen may facilitate the clinician''s ability to distinguish between low serum iron levels caused by iron deficiency from those related to inflammatory neoplastic disorders. The assay for iron measures the amount of iron which is bound to transferrin. The total iron binding capacity (TIBC) measures the amount of iron that would appear in blood if all the transferrin were saturated with iron. It is an indirect measurement of transferri

A lipid panel includes:Total cholesterol —this test measures all of the cholesterol in all the lipoprotein particles.High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) — measures the cholesterol in HDL particles; often called "good cholesterol" because it removes excess cholesterol and carries it to the liver for removal.Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) — calculates the cholesterol in LDL particles; often called "bad cholesterol" because it deposits excess cholesterol in walls of blood vessels, which can contribute to atherosclerosis. Usually, the amount of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is calculated using the results of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and triglycerides.Triglycerides — measures all the triglycerides in all the lipoprotein particles; most is in the very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) — calculated from triglycerides/5; this formula is based on the typical composition of VLDL particles.Non-HDL-C — calculated from total cholesterol minus HDL-C.Cholesterol/HDL ratio — calculated ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C.


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Elevated concentrations of Lp(a) are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease

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Clinical Significance

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet activating factor Acetylhydrolase, is an inflammatory enzyme that circulates bound mainly to low density lipoproteins and has been found to be localized and enriched in atherosclerotic plaques. In multiple clinical trials, Lp-PLA2 activity has been shown to be an independent predictor of coronary heart disease and stroke in the general population. Measurement of Lp-PLA2 may be used along with traditional cardiovascular risk factor measures for identifying individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular disease events. Clinical management may include beginning or intensifying risk reduction strategies. The activity assay is an enzyme assay run on an automated chemistry platform.


Lupus anticoagulants (LA) are members of a family of antibodies with phospholipid specificity. LA may be defined as an immunoglobulin, IgG or IgM or a mixture of both, that interferes with one or more of the in vitro phospholipid (PL) dependent tests of coagulation. These antibodies are not associated with a hemorrhagic diathesis, but rather have been linked to thrombotic events. In addition to thrombosis other clinical complications have been associated with the presence of LA. These include strokes, nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, livedo reticularis and a variety of obstetrical complications such as intrauterine fetal death, recurrent spontaneous abortion, fetal growth retardation, early onset preeclampsia and chorea gravidarum.

Limitations The purpose of this test is to determine if you have two, one, or no copies of either of two mutations in the MTHFR gene, C677T and A1298C.

Diabetic nephropathy is a complication of diabetes and is characterized by proteinuria. Before overt proteinuria develops, albumin excretion increases in those diabetic patients who are destined to develop diabetic nephropathy. There is a need to identify small, but abnormal, increases in the excretion of urinary albumin (in the range of 30-300 mg/day, ie, microalbuminuria). The National Kidney Foundation guidelines for the management of patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria recommend that all type 1 diabetic patients older than 12 years and all type 2 diabetic patients younger than 70 years have their urine tested for microalbuminuria yearly when they are under stable glucose control.

Patients with vascular diseases will generally have either a C-ANCA pattern or P-ANCA pattern, and give positive results in specific tests for PR-3 or MPO. Patients with bowel disease have been shown to have antibodies that give a P-ANCA or C-ANCA pattern. These antibodies, however, may not be directed toward MPO. Patients with drug induced lupus, etc., often present with a P-ANCA pattern that is associated with antibodies against MPO.

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Assessment of skeletal muscle breakdown (rhabdomyolysis).


Screening test for deficiencies of plasma coagulation factors other than Factors VII and XIII. The test is also used to monitor patients on heparin therapy.

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BNP is used to aid in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction in heart failure. In contrast with BNP, a drug to treat left ventricular dysfunction does not interfere with the measurement of N-terminal pro-BNP.

Screening test for abnormalities of coagulation factors that are involved in the extrinsic pathway. Also used to monitor effects of Warfarin therapy and to study patients with hereditary and acquired clotting disorders.

Useful in differentiating inflammatory and neoplastic diseases and as an index of disease severity. CRP is also useful in monitoring inflammatory disease states.


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The Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) Blood Test is for differential diagnosis of primary, secondary, and tertiary hypothyroidism. The TSH test is also useful in screening for hyperthyroidism. This assay allows adjustment of exogenous thyroxine dosage in hypothyroid patients and in patients on suppressive thyroxine therapy for thyroid neoplasia.


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The test of choice for accurate, global cardiometabolic riskstratifi cation and management• Provides comprehensive lipid analysis• Simultaneously and accurately measures cholesterol concentrations ofall 5 lipoprotein classes and their subclasses in a non-fasting patient20

Measurement of serum 25-OH vitamin D concentrations provide a good index of circulating vitamin D activity in patients not suffering from renal disease. Lower than normal 25-OH vitamin D levels can result from a dietary deficiency, poor absorption of the vitamin or impaired metabolism of the sterol in the liver. A 25-OH vitamin D deficiency can lead to bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia. Above normal levels can lead hypercalcemia. This assay employs liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to independently measure and report the two common forms of 25-hydroxy vitamin D: 25OH D3 - the endogenous form of the vitamin and 25OH D2 - the analog form used to treat 25OH Vitamin D3 deficiency.

Test Panels

Heart Health

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