The ionized calcium is determined by an ion selective electrode methodology. The result that is generated is pH adjusted. The result is empirically based on a measured pH and ionized calcium concentration normalized to a pH of 7.40. This calculation compensates for in vitro changes in pH due to loss of CO2 through specimen handling. Ionized calcium represents the true "bioavailable" calcium in the circulation. In situations where the total calcium is normal but does not fit the clinical picture, e.g., hyperparathyroidism, a determination of the ionized calcium will, many times, show an elevation in the "bioavailable" calcium component. This may be due to alterations in protein concentrations, especially albumin, that binds most of the calcium in the circulation.
Decreased levels of ceruloplasmin are found in Wilson''s Disease, fulminant liver failure, intestinal malabsorption, renal failure resulting in proteinuria, chronic active hepatitis and malnutrition. Elevated levels are found in primary biliary cirrhosis, pregnancy (first trimester), oral contraceptive use and in acute inflammatory conditions since ceruloplasmin is an acute phase reactant
Copper is an essential element that is a cofactor of many enzymes. Copper metabolism is disturbed in Wilson's disease, Menkes disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, and Indian childhood cirrhosis. Copper concentrations increase in acute phase reactions and during the third trimester of pregnancy. Copper concentrations are decreased with nephrosis, malabsorption, and malnutrition. Copper concentrations are also useful to monitor patients, especially preterm newborns, on nutritional supplementation. Results of copper are often interpreted together with ceruloplasmin.
Elevated levels of serum erythropoietin (EPO) occur in patients with anemias due to increased red cell destruction in hemolytic anemia and also in secondary polycythemias associated with impaired oxygen delivery to the tissues, impaired pulmonary oxygen exchange, abnormal hemoglobins with increased oxygen affinity, constriction of the renal vasculature, and inappropriate EPO secretion caused by certain renal and extrarenal tumors. Normal or depressed levels may occur in anemias due to increased oxygen delivery to tissues, in hypophosphatemia, and in polycythemia vera.
Serum iron quantification is useful in confirming the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia or hemochromatosis. The measurement of total iron binding in the same specimen may facilitate the clinician''s ability to distinguish between low serum iron levels caused by iron deficiency from those related to inflammatory neoplastic disorders. The assay for iron measures the amount of iron which is bound to transferrin. The total iron binding capacity (TIBC) measures the amount of iron that would appear in blood if all the transferrin were saturated with iron. It is an indirect measurement of transferri
Measurement of serum 25-OH vitamin D concentrations provide a good index of circulating vitamin D activity in patients not suffering from renal disease. Lower than normal 25-OH vitamin D levels can result from a dietary deficiency, poor absorption of the vitamin or impaired metabolism of the sterol in the liver. A 25-OH vitamin D deficiency can lead to bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia. Above normal levels can lead hypercalcemia. This assay employs liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to independently measure and report the two common forms of 25-hydroxy vitamin D: 25OH D3 - the endogenous form of the vitamin and 25OH D2 - the analog form used to treat 25OH Vitamin D3 deficiency.
Transferrin is a direct measure of the iron binding capacity. Transferrin is thus useful in assessing iron balance. Iron deficiency and overload are often evaluated with complementary laboratory tests.
Zinc is an essential element involved in a myriad of enzyme systems including wound healing, immune function, and fetal development. Zinc measurements are used to detect and monitor industrial, dietary, and accidental exposure to zinc. Also, zinc measurements may be used to evaluate health and monitor response to treatment.
MAG - Vitamin D (1-25, D2, D3), Mag RBC, & Calcium Panel contains the following tests.
QuestAssureD™ 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (D2, D3), LC/MS/MS
Vitamin D, 1,25-Dihydroxy, LC/MS/MS
Magnesium RBC (Red Blood Cell): it’s the KEY catalyst for creating “Storage” and “Active” forms of this Hormone…
25(OH)D blood test: it’s the measure of the “Storage” form, the precursor to “Active” form of this Hormone…
1,25(OH)2 D3 blood test: it’s the measure of the “Active” form of this Hormone…
“Ionized” Serum Calcium blood test (NOT a standard serum test!): given that Calcitriol’s JOB in the body is to put MORE Calcium into the bloodstream, it only makes sense to know exactly how much you have there already, right?…
MAG - Magnesium RBC, Zinc, and Copper Panel contains the following tests.
Patients who were advised to take this test by Morley Robbins and the Magnesium Advocacy Group should notify the lab attendant that the preferred specimen for their Ceruloplasmin and Copper tests is SERUM. The preferred specimen for the Zinc test is PLASMA. Please be aware that it is at the lab’s discretion to decide which specimen type is most appropriate.
Customers should refrain from taking vitamins, or mineral herbal supplements for at least one week before sample collection for Magnesium RBC.