Wellness - Women's Premium with Lipoprotein Fractionation

The Wellness - Women's Premium with Lipoprotein Fractionation panel contains 41 tests with 141 biomarkers.

The following is a list of what is included in the item above. Click the test(s) below to view what biomarkers are measured along with an explanation of what the biomarker is measuring.

Apolipoprotein A1

Apolipoprotein B

Apolipoprotein B/A1 Ratio

Also known as: C-Reactive Protein, CReactive Protein CRP, CRP

C-REACTIVE PROTEIN

C-reactive protein is produced by the liver. The level of CRP rises when there is inflammation throughout the body.

Also known as: CBC, CBC includes Differential and Platelets, CBC/PLT w/DIFF, Complete Blood Count (includes Differential and Platelets)

Absolute Band Neutrophils

Immature forms of neutrophils are called neutrophilic band cells. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that is responsible for much of the body's protection against infection. Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream to travel to wherever they are needed. Large numbers of immature forms of neutrophils, called neutrophilic band cells, are produced by the bone marrow when the demand is high.

Absolute Basophils

Basophils normally constitute 1% or less of the total white blood cell count but may increase or decrease in certain diseases and are thought to be involved in allergic reactions.

Absolute Blasts

Blasts are immature forms of white blood cells.

Absolute Eosinophils

Eosinophils (eos) respond to infections caused by parasites and play a role in allergic reactions (hypersensitivities)

Absolute Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes are white blood cells that exist in both the blood and the lymphatic system. They are divided into three types. The B lymphocytes (B cells) are antibody-producing cells that are essential for acquired, antigen-specific immune responses. The second type are T lymphocytes (T cells) some T cells help the body distinguish between "self" and "non-self" antigens while others initiate and control the extent of an immune response, boosting it as needed and then slowing it as the condition resolves. Other types of T cells directly attack and neutralize virus-infected or cancerous cells. The third type are natural killer cells (NK cells) that directly attack and kill abnormal cells such as cancer cells or those infected with a virus.

Absolute Metamyelocytes

Metamyelocytes are immature forms of white blood cells.

Absolute Monocytes

Monocytes (mono), similar to neutrophils, move to an area of infection and engulf and destroy bacteria. They are associated more often with chronic rather than acute infections. They are also involved in tissue repair and other functions involving the immune system.

Absolute Myelocytes

Myelocytes are immature forms of white blood cells.

Absolute Neutrophils

Neutrophils (neu) normally make up the largest number of circulating WBCs. They move into an area of damaged or infected tissue, where they engulf and destroy bacteria or sometimes fungi. Young neutrophils, recently released into circulation, are called bands.

Absolute Nucleated Rbc

Nucleated Red Blood Cells (nRBC) ) the presence of NRBCs in the adult blood is usually associated with malignant neoplasms, bone marrow diseases, and other serious disorders.

Absolute Promyelocytes

Promyelocytes are immature forms of white blood cells.

Band Neutrophils

Immature forms of neutrophils are called neutrophilic band cells. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that is responsible for much of the body's protection against infection. Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream to travel to wherever they are needed. Large numbers of immature forms of neutrophils, called neutrophilic band cells, are produced by the bone marrow when the demand is high.

Basophils

Basophils normally constitute 1% or less of the total white blood cell count but may increase or decrease in certain diseases and are thought to be involved in allergic reactions.

Blasts

Blasts are immature forms of white blood cells.

Eosinophils

Eosinophils (eos) respond to infections caused by parasites and play a role in allergic reactions (hypersensitivities)

Hematocrit

Hematocrit is a blood test that measures the percentage of the volume of whole blood that is made up of red blood cells. This measurement depends on the number of red blood cells and the size of red blood cells.

Hemoglobin

Serum hemoglobin is a blood test that measures the level of free hemoglobin in the liquid part of the blood (the serum). Free hemoglobin is the hemoglobin outside of the red blood cells. Most of the hemoglobin is found inside the red blood cells, not in the serum.

Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes are white blood cells that exist in both the blood and the lymphatic system. They are divided into three types. The B lymphocytes (B cells) are antibody-producing cells that are essential for acquired, antigen-specific immune responses. The second type are T lymphocytes (T cells) some T cells help the body distinguish between "self" and "non-self" antigens while others initiate and control the extent of an immune response, boosting it as needed and then slowing it as the condition resolves. Other types of T cells directly attack and neutralize virus-infected or cancerous cells. The third type are natural killer cells (NK cells) that directly attack and kill abnormal cells such as cancer cells or those infected with a virus.

MCH

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) is a calculation of the average amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin inside a red blood cell.

MCHC

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a calculation of the average percentage of hemoglobin inside a red cell.

MCV

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of RBCs.

Metamyelocytes

Metamyelocytes are immature forms of white blood cells.

Monocytes

Monocytes (mono), similar to neutrophils, move to an area of infection and engulf and destroy bacteria. They are associated more often with chronic rather than acute infections. They are also involved in tissue repair and other functions involving the immune system.

MPV

Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) - When it indicates average size of platelets are small; older platelets are generally smaller than younger ones and a low MPV may mean that a condition is affecting the production of platelets by the bone marrow. When it indicates a high number of larger, younger platelets in the blood; this may be due to the bone marrow producing and releasing platelets rapidly into circulation.

Myelocytes

Myelocytes are immature forms of white blood cells.

Neutrophils

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that is responsible for much of the body's protection against infection. Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream to travel to wherever they are needed.

Nucleated Rbc

Nucleated Red Blood Cells (nRBC) ) the presence of NRBCs in the adult blood is usually associated with malignant neoplasms, bone marrow diseases, and other serious disorders.

Platelet Count

A platelet count is a test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets help the blood clot. They are smaller than red or white blood cells.

Promyelocytes

Promyelocytes are immature forms of white blood cells.

RDW

Red cell distribution width (RDW), which may be included in a CBC, is a calculation of the variation in the size of RBCs.

Reactive Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes are white blood cells that exist in both the blood and the lymphatic system. They are divided into three types. The B lymphocytes (B cells) are antibody-producing cells that are essential for acquired, antigen-specific immune responses. The second type are T lymphocytes (T cells) some T cells help the body distinguish between "self" and "non-self" antigens while others initiate and control the extent of an immune response, boosting it as needed and then slowing it as the condition resolves. Other types of T cells directly attack and neutralize virus-infected or cancerous cells. The third type are natural killer cells (NK cells) that directly attack and kill abnormal cells such as cancer cells or those infected with a virus.

Red Blood Cell Count

An RBC count is a blood test that tells how many red blood cells (RBCs) you have. RBCs contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. How much oxygen your body tissues get depends on how many RBCs you have and how well they work.

White Blood Cell Count

A WBC count is a test to measure the number of white blood cells (WBCs) in the blood. WBCs help fight infections. They are also called leukocytes. There are five major types of white blood cells: basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes (T cells and B cells), monocytes and neutrophils

Also known as: Chem 12, Chemistry Panel, Chemistry Screen, CMP, Complete Metabolic Panel, Comprehensive Metabolic Panel CMP, SMA 12, SMA 20

Albumin

Albumin is a protein made by the liver. A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood.

Albumin/Globulin Ratio

The ratio of albumin to globulin (A/G ratio) is calculated from measured albumin and calculated globulin (total protein - albumin). Normally, there is a little more albumin than globulins, giving a normal A/G ratio of slightly over 1. Because disease states affect the relative amounts of albumin and globulin, the A/G ratio may provide a clue as to the cause of the change in protein levels. A low A/G ratio may reflect overproduction of globulins, such as seen in multiple myeloma or autoimmune diseases, or underproduction of albumin, such as may occur with cirrhosis, or selective loss of albumin from the circulation, as may occur with kidney disease (nephrotic syndrome). A high A/G ratio suggests underproduction of immunoglobulins as may be seen in some genetic deficiencies and in some leukemias. More specific tests, such as liver enzyme tests and serum protein electrophoresis, must be performed to make an accurate diagnosis. With a low total protein that is due to plasma expansion (dilution of the blood), the A/G ratio will typically be normal because both albumin and globulin will be diluted to the same extent.

Alkaline Phosphatase

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. Tissues with higher amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone.

Alt

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver. Injury to the liver results in release of the substance into the blood.

AST

AST (aspartate aminotransferase) is an enzyme found in high amounts in liver, heart, and muscle cells. It is also found in lesser amounts in other tissues.

Bilirubin, Total

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.

Bun/Creatinine Ratio

A ratio between a person’s BUN and blood creatinine to help determine what is causing these concentrations to be higher than normal. The ratio of BUN to creatinine is usually between 10:1 and 20:1. An increased ratio may be due to a condition that causes a decrease in the flow of blood to the kidneys, such as congestive heart failure or dehydration. It may also be seen with increased protein, from gastrointestinal bleeding, or increased protein in the diet. The ratio may be decreased with liver disease (due to decrease in the formation of urea) and malnutrition.

Calcium

You have more calcium in your body than any other mineral. Calcium has many important jobs. The body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them strong. The rest is throughout the body in blood, muscle and the fluid between cells. Your body needs calcium to help muscles and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system.

Carbon Dioxide

CO2 is carbon dioxide. Measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the liquid part of your blood, called the serum. In the body, most of the CO2 is in the form of a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3-). Therefore, the CO2 blood test is really a measure of your blood bicarbonate level.

Chloride

Chloride is a type of electrolyte. It works with other electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, and carbon dioxide (CO2). These substances help keep the proper balance of body fluids and maintain the body's acid-base balance. This is a measure of the amount of chloride in the fluid portion (serum) of the blood.

Creatinine

The creatinine blood test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. This test is done to see how well your kidneys work.

Egfr African American

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute. Glomeruli are the tiny filters in the kidneys that filter waste from the blood.

Egfr Non-Afr. American

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute. Glomeruli are the tiny filters in the kidneys that filter waste from the blood.

Globulin

Globulins is the collective term for most blood proteins other than albumin. Identifying the types of globulins can help diagnose certain disorders. Globulins are roughly divided into three groups: alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. Gamma globulines include various types of antibodies such as immunoglobulins (Ig) M, G, and A.

Glucose

A blood glucose test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including those in the brain. The hormones insulin and glucagon help control blood glucose levels.

Potassium

Potassium is a mineral that the body needs to work normally. It helps nerves and muscles communicate. It also helps move nutrients into cells and waste products out of cells. A diet rich in potassium helps to offset some of sodium's harmful effects on blood pressure.

Protein, Total

The total protein is the total amount of two classes of proteins, albumin and globulin that are found in the fluid portion of your blood. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. Your albumin helps prevent fluid from leaking out of blood vessels and your globulins are an important part of your immune system.

Sodium

Sodium is a substance that the body needs to work properly it is vital to normal body processes, including nerve and muscle function

Urea Nitrogen (Bun)

BUN stands for blood urea nitrogen. Urea nitrogen is what forms when protein breaks down. BUN measures the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood.

Also known as: Cortisol AM

Cortisol, A.M.

A cortisol level is a blood test that measures the amount of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland. The test is done to check for increased or decreased cortisol production. Cortisol is a steroid hormone released from the adrenal gland in response to ACTH, a hormone from the pituitary gland in the brain. Cortisol affects many different body systems. It plays a role in: bone, circulatory system, immune system. metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and protein. ervous system and stress responses.

Also known as: Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate, DHEA SO4, DHEA Sulfate Immunoassay, DHEAS, Transdehydroandrosterone

DHEA SULFATE

DHEA-sulfate test measures the amount of DHEA-sulfate in the blood. DHEA-sulfate is a weak male hormone (androgen) produced by the adrenal gland in both men and women.

Also known as: Cholesterol, LDL, LDL, LDL Cholesterol, Direct, Low Density Lipoprotein

Direct LDL

The test for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is used as part of a lipid profile to predict an individual's risk of developing heart disease. The LDL cholesterol is considered the most important form in determining risk of heart disease. LDL values amy be used to monitor levels after the start of diet or exercise programs or to determine whether or not prescribing one of the lipid-lowering drugs, such as statins, would be useful.

Estradiol

Estradiol (estradiol-17 beta, E2) is part of an estrogen that is a group of steroids that regulate the menstrual cycle and function as the main female sex hormones. Estrogens are responsible for the development of female sex organs and secondary sex characteristics and are tied to the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are considered the main sex hormones in women and are present in small quantities in men. Estradiol (E2) is the predominant form of estrogen and is produced primarily in the ovaries with additional amounts produced by the adrenal glands in women and in the testes and adrenal glands in men. Estradiol levels are used in evaluating ovarian function. Estradiol levels are increased in cases of early (precocious) puberty in girls and gynecomastia in men. Its main use has been in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhea – for example, to determine whether the cause is menopause, pregnancy, or a medical problem. In assisted reproductive technology (ART), serial measurements are used to monitor follicle development in the ovary in the days prior to in vitro fertilization. Estradiol is also sometimes used to monitor menopausal hormone replacement therapy.

Also known as: Estrogen Total Serum

Estrogen, Total, Serum

Estrogen is a group of steroids that regulate the menstrual cycle and function as the main female sex hormones. Estrogens are responsible for the development of female sex organs and secondary sex characteristics and are tied to the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are considered the main sex hormones in women and are present in small quantities in men.

Ferritin

Ferritin is a protein found inside cells that stores iron so your body can use it later. A ferritin test indirectly measures the amount of iron in your blood. The amount of ferritin in your blood (serum ferritin level) is directly related to the amount of iron stored in your body.

Also known as: Factor I, Fibrinogen, Fibrinogen Activity Clauss

Fibrinogen Activity,

Fibrinogen is a protein produced by the liver. This protein helps stop bleeding by helping blood clots to form. A blood test can be done to tell how much fibrinogen you have in the blood.

Also known as: Gamma Glutamyl Transferase GGT, Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase, Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase, Gamma-GT, GGTP, GTP

Ggt

Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a test to measure the amount of the enzyme GGT in the blood.

Also known as: 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG)., GlycoMark

Glycomark (R)

GLYCOMARK ® measures 1,5 anhydroglucitol, a glucose derived carbohydrate whose urinary excretion varies inversely with mean blood glucose. 1,5 anhydroglucitol appears to integrate variation in mean blood glucose over a period of about two weeks.

Also known as: A1c, Glycated Hemoglobin, Glycohemoglobin, Glycosylated Hemoglobin, HA1c, HbA1c, Hemoglobin A1c, Hemoglobin A1c HgbA1C, Hgb A1c

Hemoglobin A1c

The A1c test evaluates the average amount of glucose in the blood over the last 2 to 3 months. It does this by measuring the concentration of glycated (also often called glycosylated) hemoglobin A1c. Hemoglobin is an oxygen-transporting protein found inside red blood cells (RBCs). There are several types of normal hemoglobin, but the predominant form – about 95-98% – is hemoglobin A. As glucose circulates in the blood, some of it spontaneously binds to hemoglobin A. The hemoglobin molecules with attached glucose are called glycated hemoglobin. The higher the concentration of glucose in the blood, the more glycated hemoglobin is formed. Once the glucose binds to the hemoglobin, it remains there for the life of the red blood cell – normally about 120 days. The predominant form of glycated hemoglobin is referred to as HbA1c or A1c. A1c is produced on a daily basis and slowly cleared from the blood as older RBCs die and younger RBCs (with non-glycated hemoglobin) take their place. This test is used to monitor treatment in someone who has been diagnosed with diabetes. It helps to evaluate how well their glucose levels have been controlled by treatment over time. This test may be used to screen for and diagnose diabetes or risk of developing diabetes. In 2010, clinical practice guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) stated that A1c may be added to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as an option for diabetes screening and diagnosis. For monitoring purposes, an A1c of less than 7% indicates good glucose control and a lower risk of diabetic complications for the majority of diabetics. However, in 2012, the ADA and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) issued a position statement recommending that the management of glucose control in type 2 diabetes be more "patient-centered." Data from recent studies have shown that low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can cause complications and that people with risk of severe hypoglycemia, underlying health conditions, complications, and a limited life expectancy do not necessarily benefit from having a stringent goal of less than 7% for their A1c. The statement recommends that people work closely with their doctor to select a goal that reflects each person's individual health status and that balances risks and benefits.

Also known as: Homocysteine, Homocysteine Cardiovascular

HOMOCYSTEINE,

Also known as: IGF-1, IGFI LCMS, Insulin-Like Growth Factor, Insulin-like Growth Factor - 1, Somatomedin C, Somatomedin-C

Igf I, LC/MS

The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) test is an indirect measure of the average amount of growth hormone (GH) being produced by the body. IGF-1 and GH are polypeptide hormones, small proteins that are vital for normal bone and tissue growth and development. GH is produced by the pituitary gland, a grape-sized gland located at the base of the brain behind the bridge of your nose. GH is secreted into the bloodstream in pulses throughout the day and night with peaks that occur mostly during the night. IGF-1 is produced by the liver and skeletal muscle as well as many other tissues in response to GH stimulation. IGF-1 mediates many of the actions of GH, stimulating the growth of bones and other tissues and promoting the production of lean muscle mass. IGF-1 mirrors GH excesses and deficiencies, but its level is stable throughout the day, making it a useful indicator of average GH levels.

Z Score (Female)

z Score. A z-score (aka, a standard score) indicates how many standard deviations an element is from the mean. A z-score can be calculated from the following formula. z = (X - µ) / s where z is the z-score, X is the value of the element, µ is the population mean, and s is the standard deviation.

Also known as: Insulin (fasting)

Insulin

Insulin is a hormone that is produced and stored in the beta cells of the pancreas. It is vital for the transportation and storage of glucose at the cellular level, helps regulate blood glucose levels, and has a role in lipid metabolism. When blood glucose levels rise after a meal, insulin is released to allow glucose to move into tissue cells, especially muscle and adipose (fat) cells, where is it is used for energy production. Insulin then prompts the liver to either store the remaining excess blood glucose as glycogen for short-term energy storage and/or to use it to produce fatty acids. The fatty acids are eventually used by adipose tissue to synthesize triglycerides to form the basis of a longer term, more concentrated form of energy storage. Without insulin, glucose cannot reach most of the body's cells. Without glucose, the cells starve and blood glucose levels rise to unhealthy levels. This can cause disturbances in normal metabolic processes that result in various disorders, including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and vision and neurological problems. Thus, diabetes, a disorder associated with decreased insulin effects, is eventually a life-threatening condition.

Also known as: Iron and TIBC, Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity TIBC, TIBC

% Saturation

Iron Binding Capacity

Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to see if you may have too much or too little iron in the blood. Iron moves through the blood attached to a protein called transferrin. This test helps your doctor know how well that protein can carry iron in the blood.

Iron, Total

Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries oxygen from our lungs throughout our bodies. It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and enzymes. Your body needs the right amount of iron. If you have too little iron, you may develop iron deficiency anemia. Causes of low iron levels include blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from foods. People at higher risk of having too little iron are young children and women who are pregnant or have periods.

Also known as: Lactate Dehydrogenase LD, LDH

Ld

LDH isoenzymes is a test to check how much of the different types of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are in the blood. Measurement of LDH isoenzymes helps determine the location of any tissue damage. LDH is found in many body tissues such as the heart, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, blood cells, and lungs. LDH exists in 5 forms, which differ slightly in structure. LDH-1 is found primarily in heart muscle and red blood cells. LDH-2 is concentrated in white blood cells. LDH-3 is highest in the lung. LDH-4 is highest in the kidney, placenta, and pancreas. LDH-5 is highest in the liver and skeletal muscle.

Also known as: Lipid Panel with Ratios (fasting), Lipid Profile with Ratios (fasting), Lipids

Chol/HDLC Ratio

Cholesterol, Total

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that occurs naturally in all parts of the body. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much in your blood, it can combine with other substances in the blood and stick to the walls of your arteries. This is called plaque. Plaque can narrow your arteries or even block them. High levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase your risk of heart disease. Your cholesterol levels tend to rise as you get older. There are usually no signs or symptoms that you have high blood cholesterol, but it can be detected with a blood test. You are likely to have high cholesterol if members of your family have it, if you are overweight or if you eat a lot of fatty foods. You can lower your cholesterol by exercising more and eating more fruits and vegetables. You also may need to take medicine to lower your cholesterol.

HDL Cholesterol

LDL-Cholesterol

LDL/HDL Ratio

Non HDL Cholesterol

Triglycerides

Triglycerides are a form of fat and a major source of energy for the body. This test measures the amount of triglycerides in the blood. Most triglycerides are found in fat (adipose) tissue, but some triglycerides circulate in the blood to provide fuel for muscles to work. After a person eats, an increased level of triglycerides is found in the blood as the body converts the energy not needed right away into fat. Triglycerides move via the blood from the gut to adipose tissue for storage. In between meals, triglycerides are released from fat tissue to be used as an energy source for the body. Most triglycerides are carried in the blood by lipoproteins called very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High levels of triglycerides in the blood are associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), although the reason for this is not well understood. Certain factors can contribute to high triglyceride levels and to risk of CVD, including lack of exercise, being overweight, smoking cigarettes, consuming excess alcohol, and medical conditions such as diabetes and kidney disease.

Also known as: Lipoprotein A, Lp (a), Lp(a)

Lipoprotein (A)

Lipoprotein-a, or Lp(a) are molecules made of proteins and fat. They carry cholesterol and similar substances through the blood. A high level of Lp(a) is considered a risk factor for heart disease. High levels of lipoproteins can increase the risk of heart disease. The test is done to check your risk of atherosclerosis, stroke, and heart attack.

Also known as: Ion Mobility, Cardio IQ Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility , HDL Subfractions, IDL Subfractions, LDL Subfractions, Lipoprotein Fraction, Lipoprotein Fractionation, Lipoprotein Fractionation Ion Mobility Cardio IQ, Quest Diagnostics has replaced the VAP® Cholesterol Test with Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility, Cardio IQ™ test

HDL Large

LDL Particle Number

LDL Pattern

LDL Peak Size

LDL Small

Also known as: Magnesium RBC

Magnesium, Rbc

About half of the body's magnesium is found in bone. The other half is found inside cells of body tissues and organs. Magnesium is needed for nearly all chemical processes in the body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, and keeps the bones strong. Magnesium is also needed for the heart to function normally and to help regulate blood pressure. Magnesium also helps the body control blood sugar level and helps support the body's defense (immune) system.

Also known as: Anti-Myeloperoxidase, Churg-Strauss Syndrome, Crescentic Glomeruloephritis, MPO, Myeloperoxidase Antibody MPO

Myeloperoxidase Antibody

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are a group of autoantibodies produced when a person's immune system mistakenly targets and attacks its own neutrophil proteins. Two of the most commonly targeted proteins are myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3). This results in the production of antibodies to MPO and/or PR3. The ANCA blood test detects the presence or absence of these autoantibodies. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies may be present in a variety of autoimmune disorders that cause inflammation and damage to blood vessels throughout the body (systemic vasculitis). Vasculitis can cause tissue and organ damage due to the narrowing and obstruction of blood vessels and the subsequent loss of blood supply. It can also produce areas of weakness in blood vessel walls, known as aneurysms, which have the potential to rupture.

Also known as: Arachidonic Acid (AA), Arachidonic Acid/EPA Ratio, DHA, EPA, Omega-3 Index, Omega-6/omega-3 Ratio, Omega3 and 6 Fatty Acids Plasma, Phospholipid Omega-3 Fatty Acid, Phospholipid Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs)

Also known as: BNP, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide, proBNP Nterminal

Probnp, N Terminal

N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) used to detect and evaluate heart failure. BNP is actually produced primarily by the left ventricle of the heart (the heart's main pumping chamber). It is associated with blood volume and pressure and with the work that the heart must do in pumping blood throughout the body.When the left ventricle of the heart is stretched, the concentrations of NT-proBNP produced can increase markedly. This situation indicates that the heart is working harder and having more trouble meeting the body's demands. This may occur with heart failure as well as with other diseases that affect the heart and circulatory system. It does not mean that the heart has stopped working; it just means that it is not pumping blood as effectively as it should be. NT-proBNP concentrations will reflect this diminished capacity.

Also known as: Progesterone Immunoassay

Progesterone

Serum progesterone is a test to measure the amount of progesterone in the blood. Progesterone is a hormone produced mainly in the ovaries. In women, progesterone plays a vital role in pregnancy. After an egg is released by the ovaries (ovulation), progesterone helps make the uterus ready for implantation of a fertilized egg. It prepares the womb (uterus) for pregnancy and the breasts for milk production. Men produce some amount of progesterone, but it probably has no normal function except to help produce other steroid hormones.

Vitamin D, 25-Oh, D2

Vitamin D2 ((ergocalciferol,) is found in fortified foods and in most vitamin preparations and supplements. Vitamin D comes from two sources: endogenous, which is produced in the skin on exposure to sunlight, and exogenous, which is ingested in foods and supplements. The D2 form is found in fortified foods and in most vitamin preparations and supplements. Vitamin D2 is effective when it is converted by the liver and the kidney into the active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

Vitamin D, 25-Oh, D3

Vitamin D3 (cholecalcifero) which comes from animals. Vitamin D comes from two sources: endogenous, which is produced in the skin on exposure to sunlight, and exogenous, which is ingested in foods and supplements. Vitamin D3 is the form produced in the body and is also used in some supplements. Vitamin D3 are is converted by the liver and the kidney into the active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

Vitamin D, 25-Oh, Total

Vitamin D comes from two sources: endogenous, which is produced in the skin on exposure to sunlight, and exogenous, which is ingested in foods and supplements. The chemical structures of the types of vitamin D are slightly different, and they are named vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol, which comes from plants) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, which comes from animals). The D2 form is found in fortified foods and in most vitamin preparations and supplements. Vitamin D3 is the form produced in the body and is also used in some supplements. Vitamin D2 and D3 are equally effective when they are converted by the liver and the kidney into the active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

Vitamin D, 25-Oh, Total

Vitamin D comes from two sources: endogenous, which is produced in the skin on exposure to sunlight, and exogenous, which is ingested in foods and supplements. The chemical structures of the types of vitamin D are slightly different, and they are named vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol, which comes from plants) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, which comes from animals). The D2 form is found in fortified foods and in most vitamin preparations and supplements. Vitamin D3 is the form produced in the body and is also used in some supplements. Vitamin D2 and D3 are equally effective when they are converted by the liver and the kidney into the active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

Reticulocyte Count,

A reticulocyte count measures the percentage of reticulocytes (slightly immature red blood cells) in the blood. The test is done to determine if red blood cells are being created in the bone marrow at an appropriate rate. The number of reticulocytes in the blood is a sign of how quickly they are being produced and released by the bone marrow.

Reticulocyte, Absolute

A reticulocyte count measures the percentage of reticulocytes (slightly immature red blood cells) in the blood. The test is done to determine if red blood cells are being created in the bone marrow at an appropriate rate. The number of reticulocytes in the blood is a sign of how quickly they are being produced and released by the bone marrow.

Also known as: ESR, SED RATE, Sed Rate by Modified Westergren ESR

Sed Rate By Modified

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is an indirect measure of the degree of inflammation present in the body. It actually measures the rate of fall (sedimentation) of erythrocytes (red blood cells) in a sample of blood.

Also known as: Triiodothyronine

T3, Total

Triiodothyronine (T3) is a thyroid hormone. It plays an important role in the body's control of metabolism.

T3 Uptake

T3 uptake is also known as T3 Resin Uptake (T3RU) or Thyroid Uptake. It estimates how much thyroid hormone-binding proteins are available in the blood through a calculation based on levels of T3 or T4 added to a person's blood specimen.

Also known as: Free T3, FT3, T3 Free

T3, Free

This test measures the amount of triiodothyronine, or T3, in the blood.

Also known as: T4 Thyroxine Total

Free T4 Index (T7)

FTI stands for the Free Thyroxine Index and is also sometimes referred to as T7. It is a calculated value determined from the T3 uptake test and total T4 test and provides an estimate of the level of free T4 in the blood.

T4 (Thyroxine), Total

This test measures the amount of thyroxine, or T4, in the blood. T4 is one of two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland. The total T4 test is used to help diagnose hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. It is a useful test but can be affected by the amount of protein available in the blood to bind to the hormone.

Also known as: Free T4, FT4, T4 Free

T4, Free

The free T4 test is not affected by protein levels. Since free T4 is the active form of thyroxine, the free T4 test is may be a more accurate reflection of thyroid hormone function.

Also known as: Testosterone Total And Free And Sex Hormone Binding Globulin

Free Testosterone

In many cases, measurement of total testosterone provides the doctor with adequate information. However, in certain cases, for example when the level of SHBG is abnormal, a test for free or bioavailable testosterone may be performed as it may more accurately reflect the presence of a medical condition.

Sex Hormone Binding

The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test measures the concentration of SHBG in the blood. SHBG is a protein that is produced by the liver and binds tightly to testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and estradiol (an estrogen). In this bound state, it transports them in the blood as an inactive form. The amount of SHBG in circulation is affected by age and sex, by decreased or increased testosterone or estrogen production and can be affected by certain diseases and conditions such as liver disease, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, and obesity. Changes in SHBG levels can affect the amount of testosterone that is available to be used by the body's tissues. A total testosterone test does not distinguish between bound and unbound testosterone but determines the overall quantity of testosterone. If a person's SHBG level is not normal, then the total testosterone may not be an accurate representation of the amount of testosterone that is available to the person's tissues.

TESTOSTERONE, TOTAL,

A testosterone test measures the amount of the male hormone, testosterone, in the blood. Both men and women produce this hormone. In males, the testicles produce most of the testosterone in the body. Levels are most often checked to evaluate signs of low testosterone: In boys -- early or late puberty and in men -- impotence, low level of sexual interest, infertility, thinning of the bones In females, the ovaries produce most of the testosterone and levels are most often checked to evaluate signs of higher testosterone levels, such as: decreased breast size, excess hair growth, increased size of the clitoris. irregular or absent menstrual periods and male-pattern baldness or hair thinning.

Transferrin

Transferrin is a direct measure of the iron binding capacity and is useful in assessing iron balance, iron deficiency and overload.

Also known as: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Thyrotropin

TSH

A TSH test is a lab test that measures the amount of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood. TSH is produced by the pituitary gland. It tells the thyroid gland to make and release thyroid hormones into the blood.

TSH

Also known as: Serum Urate, UA

Uric Acid

Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some foods and drinks. These include liver, anchovies, mackerel, dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. From there, it passes out in urine. If your body produces too much uric acid or doesn't remove enough if it, you can get sick. A high level of uric acid in the blood is called hyperuricemia.

Also known as: UA, Complete, Urinalysis UA Complete, Urine Analysis, Complete

Amorphous Sediment

Appearance

Bacteria

Bacteria are living things that have only one cell. Most bacteria won't hurt you - less than 1 percent of the different types make people sick. Many are helpful. Some bacteria help to digest food, destroy disease-causing cells, and give the body needed vitamins. But infectious bacteria can make you ill. They reproduce quickly in your body. Many give off chemicals called toxins, which can damage tissue and make you sick. Examples of bacteria that cause infections include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and E. coli.

Bilirubin

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.

Calcium Oxalate Crystals

Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound that forms envelope-shaped crystals. A major constituent of human kidney stones.

Casts

Urinary casts are cylindrical structures produced by the kidney and present in the urine in certain disease states. They form in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts of nephrons, then dislodge and pass into the urine, where they can be detected by microscopy.

Color

Crystals

Abnormal crystals may appear in urine as a result of pathology or due to normal catabolism

Glucose

A blood glucose test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including those in the brain. The hormones insulin and glucagon help control blood glucose levels.

Granular Cast

The second-most common type of cast, granular casts can result either from the breakdown of cellular casts or the inclusion of aggregates of plasma proteins (e.g., albumin) or immunoglobulin light chains. Depending on the size of inclusions, they can be classified as fine or coarse, though the distinction has no diagnostic significance. Their appearance is generally more cigar-shaped and of a higher refractive index than hyaline casts. While most often indicative of chronic renal disease, these casts, as with hyaline casts, can also be seen for a short time following strenuous exercise

Hyaline Cast

Urinary casts are tiny tube-shaped particles. Urinary casts may be made up of white blood cells, red blood cells, kidney cells, or substances such as protein or fat. The most common type of cast, hyaline casts are solidified Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein secreted from the tubular epithelial cells of individual nephrons. Low urine flow, concentrated urine, or an acidic environment can contribute to the formation of hyaline casts, and, as such, they may be seen in normal individuals in dehydration or vigorous exercise. Hyaline casts are cylindrical and clear, with a low refractive index,

Ketones

Ketones are substances produced in the liver when fat cells break down in the blood. A serum ketone test is a measurement of how many ketones are in the blood.

Leukocyte Esterase

Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs associated with infection.

Nitrite

Occult Blood

The stool guaiac test looks for hidden (occult) blood in a stool sample. It can find blood even if you cannot see it yourself.

Ph

Level of acid

Protein

Body fluids contain many different proteins that serve diverse functions such as transport of nutrients, removal of toxins, control of metabolic processes, and defense against invaders. Protein electrophoresis is a method for separating these proteins based on their size and electrical charge. When body fluids are separated by electrophoresis, they form a characteristic pattern of bands of different widths and intensities, reflecting the mixture of proteins present. This pattern is divided into five fractions, called albumin, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta, and gamma. In some cases, the beta fraction is further divided into beta 1 and beta 2. Albumin, which is produced in the liver, accounts for about 60% of the protein in the blood. "Globulins" is a collective term used to refer to proteins other than albumin. With the exception of the immunoglobulins and some complement proteins, most of the globulins are also produced in the liver. Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) is a method used to identify abnormal bands seen on serum, urine, or CSF protein electrophoresis, as to which type of antibody (immunoglobulin) is present.

Rbc

RBCs contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. How much oxygen your body tissues get depends on how many RBCs you have and how well they work.

Reducing Substances

Renal Epithelial Cells

Specific Gravity

Squamous Epithelial Cells

Transitional Epithelial

Triple Phosphate Crystals

Struvite stones (triple phosphate/magnesium ammonium phosphate) - about 10–15% of urinary calculi are composed of struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate, NH4MgPO4·6H2O).[44] Struvite stones (also known as "infection stones", urease or triple-phosphate stones), form most often in the presence of infection by urea-splitting bacteria

Uric Acid Crystals

Abnormal crystals may appear in urine as a result of pathology or due to normal catabolism

WBC

WBCs help fight infections. They are also called leukocytes. There are five major types of white blood cells: basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes (T cells and B cells), monocytes and neutrophils

YEAST

Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in your body. Usually, your immune system keeps yeast under control. If you are sick or taking antibiotics, it can multiply and cause an infection.

Also known as: Cobalamin, Folic Acid, Vitamin B 12, Vitamin B 12 and Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 Cobalamin and Folate Panel Serum, Vitamin B12/Folic Acid

Folate, Serum

Folate is part of the B complex of vitamins and is measures the levels of folate in the liquid portion of the blood, the serum or plasma, to detect deficiencies. Folate is necessary for normal RBC formation, tissue and cellular repair, and DNA synthesis.. A deficiency inr folate can lead to macrocytic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia, a type of macrocytic anemia, is characterized by the production of fewer but larger RBCs called macrocytes, in addition to some cellular changes in the bone marrow.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is part of the B complex of vitamins and measurea the levels of vitamin B12 in the liquid portion of the blood, the serum or plasma, to detect deficiencies. Cobalamine, or vitamin B12, is found in animal products such as red meat, fish, poultry, milk, yogurt, and eggs and is not produced in the human body. In recent years, fortified cereals, breads, and other grain products have also become important dietary sources of B12. Vitamin B12 is necessary for normal RBC formation, tissue and cellular repair, and DNA synthesis. B12 is important for nerve health. A deficiency in B12 can lead to macrocytic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia, a type of macrocytic anemia, is characterized by the production of fewer but larger RBCs called macrocytes, in addition to some cellular changes in the bone marrow. B12 deficiency can lead to varying degrees of neuropathy, nerve damage that can cause tingling and numbness in the affected person's hands and feet.
*Process times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. The lab may need additional time due to weather, holidays, confirmation/repeat testing, or equipment maintenance.