The following is a list of what is included in the item above. Click the test(s) below to view what biomarkers are measured along with an explanation of what the biomarker is measuring.
DHEA Sulfate, Immunoassay #402 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate, DHEA SO4, DHEA Sulfate Immunoassay, DHEAS, Transdehydroandrosterone
DHEA-sulfate test measures the amount of DHEA-sulfate in the blood. DHEA-sulfate is a weak male hormone (androgen) produced by the adrenal gland in both men and women.
Estradiol #4021 (1 Biomarkers)
Estradiol (estradiol-17 beta, E2) is part of an estrogen that is a group of steroids that regulate the menstrual cycle and function as the main female sex hormones. Estrogens are responsible for the development of female sex organs and secondary sex characteristics and are tied to the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are considered the main sex hormones in women and are present in small quantities in men. Estradiol (E2) is the predominant form of estrogen and is produced primarily in the ovaries with additional amounts produced by the adrenal glands in women and in the testes and adrenal glands in men. Estradiol levels are used in evaluating ovarian function. Estradiol levels are increased in cases of early (precocious) puberty in girls and gynecomastia in men. Its main use has been in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhea – for example, to determine whether the cause is menopause, pregnancy, or a medical problem. In assisted reproductive technology (ART), serial measurements are used to monitor follicle development in the ovary in the days prior to in vitro fertilization. Estradiol is also sometimes used to monitor menopausal hormone replacement therapy.
Estrogen, Total, Serum #439 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Estrogen Total Serum
Estrogen, Total, Serum
Estrogen is a group of steroids that regulate the menstrual cycle and function as the main female sex hormones. Estrogens are responsible for the development of female sex organs and secondary sex characteristics and are tied to the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are considered the main sex hormones in women and are present in small quantities in men.
Folate, Serum #466 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Folate Serum, Folic Acid
Folate is part of the B complex of vitamins and is measures the levels of folate in the liquid portion of the blood, the serum or plasma, to detect deficiencies. Folate is necessary for normal RBC formation, tissue and cellular repair, and DNA synthesis.. A deficiency inr folate can lead to macrocytic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia, a type of macrocytic anemia, is characterized by the production of fewer but larger RBCs called macrocytes, in addition to some cellular changes in the bone marrow.
FSH and LH #7137 (2 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone
Growth Hormone (GH) #521 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: GH, Growth Hormone GH, HGH, Human Growth Hormone (hGH), Somatotropin
Growth Hormone (Gh)
This test measures the amount of growth hormone (GH) in the blood. GH is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. Growth hormone is essential for a child's normal growth and development and promotes proper linear bone growth from birth through puberty. Children with insufficient GH production grow more slowly and are smaller in size for their age. Excess GH is most often due to a GH-secreting pituitary tumor (usually benign). Too much GH can cause children's long bones to continue to grow beyond puberty, resulting in gigantism with heights of 7 or more feet tall. Those with excess GH may also have thickening of facial features, general weakness, delayed puberty, and headaches. Gigantism is an extremely rare condition. Although GH is not as active in adults, it does play a role in regulating bone density, muscle mass, and lipid metabolism. Deficiencies can lead to decreased bone densities, less muscle mass, and altered lipid levels. Excess GH in adults can lead to acromegaly, marked not by bone lengthening but by bone thickening.
Homocysteine #31789 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Homocysteine, Homocysteine Cardiovascular
IGF-I, LC/MS #16293 (2 Biomarkers)
Also known as: IGF-1, IGFI LCMS, Insulin-Like Growth Factor, Insulin-like Growth Factor - 1, Somatomedin C, Somatomedin-C
Igf I, LC/MS
The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) test is an indirect measure of the average amount of growth hormone (GH) being produced by the body. IGF-1 and GH are polypeptide hormones, small proteins that are vital for normal bone and tissue growth and development. GH is produced by the pituitary gland, a grape-sized gland located at the base of the brain behind the bridge of your nose. GH is secreted into the bloodstream in pulses throughout the day and night with peaks that occur mostly during the night. IGF-1 is produced by the liver and skeletal muscle as well as many other tissues in response to GH stimulation. IGF-1 mediates many of the actions of GH, stimulating the growth of bones and other tissues and promoting the production of lean muscle mass. IGF-1 mirrors GH excesses and deficiencies, but its level is stable throughout the day, making it a useful indicator of average GH levels.
Z Score (Female)
z Score. A z-score (aka, a standard score) indicates how many standard deviations an element is from the mean. A z-score can be calculated from the following formula. z = (X - µ) / s where z is the z-score, X is the value of the element, µ is the population mean, and s is the standard deviation.
Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) #7573 (3 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Iron and TIBC, Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity TIBC, TIBC
Iron Binding Capacity
Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to see if you may have too much or too little iron in the blood. Iron moves through the blood attached to a protein called transferrin. This test helps your doctor know how well that protein can carry iron in the blood.
Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries oxygen from our lungs throughout our bodies. It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and enzymes.
Your body needs the right amount of iron. If you have too little iron, you may develop iron deficiency anemia. Causes of low iron levels include blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from foods. People at higher risk of having too little iron are young children and women who are pregnant or have periods.
Progesterone, Immunoassay #745 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Progesterone Immunoassay
Serum progesterone is a test to measure the amount of progesterone in the blood. Progesterone is a hormone produced mainly in the ovaries. In women, progesterone plays a vital role in pregnancy. After an egg is released by the ovaries (ovulation), progesterone helps make the uterus ready for implantation of a fertilized egg. It prepares the womb (uterus) for pregnancy and the breasts for milk production. Men produce some amount of progesterone, but it probably has no normal function except to help produce other steroid hormones.
PSA Total #5363 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: PSA
PSA stands for prostate-specific antigen. It is a protein produced by prostate cells. The PSA test is done to help diagnose and follow prostate cancer in men.
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) #30740 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin SHBG, SHBG, TeBG, Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin
Sex Hormone Binding
The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test measures the concentration of SHBG in the blood. SHBG is a protein that is produced by the liver and binds tightly to testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and estradiol (an estrogen). In this bound state, it transports them in the blood as an inactive form. The amount of SHBG in circulation is affected by age and sex, by decreased or increased testosterone or estrogen production and can be affected by certain diseases and conditions such as liver disease, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, and obesity. Changes in SHBG levels can affect the amount of testosterone that is available to be used by the body's tissues.
A total testosterone test does not distinguish between bound and unbound testosterone but determines the overall quantity of testosterone. If a person's SHBG level is not normal, then the total testosterone may not be an accurate representation of the amount of testosterone that is available to the person's tissues.
T3, Free #34429 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Free T3, FT3, T3 Free
This test measures the amount of triiodothyronine, or T3, in the blood.
T4, Free #866 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Free T4, FT4, T4 Free
The free T4 test is not affected by protein levels. Since free T4 is the active form of thyroxine, the free T4 test is may be a more accurate reflection of thyroid hormone function.
Testosterone, Free (Dialysis) and Total MS #36170 (2 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Testosterone Free Dialysis and Total LCMSMS
In many cases, measurement of total testosterone provides the doctor with adequate information. However, in certain cases, for example when the level of SHBG is abnormal, a test for free or bioavailable testosterone may be performed as it may more accurately reflect the presence of a medical condition.
A testosterone test measures the amount of the male hormone, testosterone, in the blood. Both men and women produce this hormone. In males, the testicles produce most of the testosterone in the body. Levels are most often checked to evaluate signs of low testosterone: In boys -- early or late puberty and in men -- impotence, low level of sexual interest, infertility, thinning of the bones
In females, the ovaries produce most of the testosterone and levels are most often checked to evaluate signs of higher testosterone levels, such as: decreased breast size, excess hair growth, increased size of the clitoris. irregular or absent menstrual periods and male-pattern baldness or hair thinning.
Urinalysis (UA), Complete #5463 (27 Biomarkers)
Also known as: UA, Complete, Urinalysis UA Complete, Urine Analysis, Complete
Bacteria are living things that have only one cell. Most bacteria won't hurt you - less than 1 percent of the different types make people sick. Many are helpful. Some bacteria help to digest food, destroy disease-causing cells, and give the body needed vitamins. But infectious bacteria can make you ill. They reproduce quickly in your body. Many give off chemicals called toxins, which can damage tissue and make you sick. Examples of bacteria that cause infections include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and E. coli.
Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.
Calcium Oxalate Crystals
Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound that forms envelope-shaped crystals. A major constituent of human kidney stones.
Urinary casts are cylindrical structures produced by the kidney and present in the urine in certain disease states. They form in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts of nephrons, then dislodge and pass into the urine, where they can be detected by microscopy.
Abnormal crystals may appear in urine as a result of pathology or due to normal catabolism
A blood glucose test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including those in the brain. The hormones insulin and glucagon help control blood glucose levels.
The second-most common type of cast, granular casts can result either from the breakdown of cellular casts or the inclusion of aggregates of plasma proteins (e.g., albumin) or immunoglobulin light chains. Depending on the size of inclusions, they can be classified as fine or coarse, though the distinction has no diagnostic significance. Their appearance is generally more cigar-shaped and of a higher refractive index than hyaline casts. While most often indicative of chronic renal disease, these casts, as with hyaline casts, can also be seen for a short time following strenuous exercise
Urinary casts are tiny tube-shaped particles. Urinary casts may be made up of white blood cells, red blood cells, kidney cells, or substances such as protein or fat. The most common type of cast, hyaline casts are solidified Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein secreted from the tubular epithelial cells of individual nephrons. Low urine flow, concentrated urine, or an acidic environment can contribute to the formation of hyaline casts, and, as such, they may be seen in normal individuals in dehydration or vigorous exercise. Hyaline casts are cylindrical and clear, with a low refractive index,
Ketones are substances produced in the liver when fat cells break down in the blood. A serum ketone test is a measurement of how many ketones are in the blood.
Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs associated with infection.
The test looks for hidden (occult) blood in a specimen sample. It can find blood even if you cannot see it yourself.
Level of acid
Body fluids contain many different proteins that serve diverse functions such as transport of nutrients, removal of toxins, control of metabolic processes, and defense against invaders. Protein electrophoresis is a method for separating these proteins based on their size and electrical charge. When body fluids are separated by electrophoresis, they form a characteristic pattern of bands of different widths and intensities, reflecting the mixture of proteins present. This pattern is divided into five fractions, called albumin, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta, and gamma. In some cases, the beta fraction is further divided into beta 1 and beta 2.
Albumin, which is produced in the liver, accounts for about 60% of the protein in the blood. "Globulins" is a collective term used to refer to proteins other than albumin. With the exception of the immunoglobulins and some complement proteins, most of the globulins are also produced in the liver.
Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) is a method used to identify abnormal bands seen on serum, urine, or CSF protein electrophoresis, as to which type of antibody (immunoglobulin) is present.
RBCs contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. How much oxygen your body tissues get depends on how many RBCs you have and how well they work.
Renal Epithelial Cells
Squamous Epithelial Cells
Triple Phosphate Crystals
Struvite stones (triple phosphate/magnesium ammonium phosphate) - about 10–15% of urinary calculi are composed of struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate, NH4MgPO4·6H2O). Struvite stones (also known as "infection stones", urease or triple-phosphate stones), form most often in the presence of infection by urea-splitting bacteria
Uric Acid Crystals
Abnormal crystals may appear in urine as a result of pathology or due to normal catabolism
WBCs help fight infections. They are also called leukocytes. There are five major types of white blood cells: basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes (T cells and B cells), monocytes and neutrophils
Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in your body. Usually, your immune system keeps yeast under control. If you are sick or taking antibiotics, it can multiply and cause an infection.
Vitamin A (Retinol) #921 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Retinol, Vitamin A, Vitamin A Retinol
This test measures the level of retinol in the blood; retinol is the primary form of vitamin A in animals. Vitamin A is an essential nutrient required for healthy vision, skin growth and integrity, bone formation, immune function, and embryonic development. It is required to produce photoreceptors in the eyes and to maintain the lining of the surface of the eyes and other mucous membranes. Deficiencies in vitamin A can impair night vision, cause eye damage, and in severe cases lead to blindness. Acute or chronic excesses of vitamin A can be toxic, cause a range of symptoms, and sometimes lead to birth defects.
The body cannot make vitamin A and must rely on dietary sources of vitamin A. Meat sources provide vitamin A (as retinol), while vegetable and fruit sources provide carotene (a substance that can be converted into vitamin A by the liver). Vitamin A is stored in the liver and fat tissues (it is fat-soluble), and healthy adults may have as much as a year's worth stored. The body maintains a relatively stable concentration in the blood through a feedback system that releases vitamin A from storage as needed and increases or decreases the efficiency of dietary vitamin A absorption.
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) #927 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: B12, B12 Vitamin, Cobalamin, Cyanocobalamin, Vitamin B12 Cobalamin
Vitamin B12 is part of the B complex of vitamins and measurea the levels of vitamin B12 in the liquid portion of the blood, the serum or plasma, to detect deficiencies. Cobalamine, or vitamin B12, is found in animal products such as red meat, fish, poultry, milk, yogurt, and eggs and is not produced in the human body. In recent years, fortified cereals, breads, and other grain products have also become important dietary sources of B12. Vitamin B12 is necessary for normal RBC formation, tissue and cellular repair, and DNA synthesis. B12 is important for nerve health. A deficiency in B12 can lead to macrocytic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia, a type of macrocytic anemia, is characterized by the production of fewer but larger RBCs called macrocytes, in addition to some cellular changes in the bone marrow. B12 deficiency can lead to varying degrees of neuropathy, nerve damage that can cause tingling and numbness in the affected person's hands and feet.