Heart Health - Save 10% on Cardiovascular Tests

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S. with 1 in 4 deaths being caused by the disease. Take control of your health by knowing your numbers.Take advantage of this month's specials. Save an additional 10% on Cardiovascular Tests

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Apolipoprotein A1 (APO A1) has been reported to be a better predictor than HDL cholesterol and triglycerides for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Low levels of APO A1 in serum are associated with increased risk of CAD. The measurement of APO A1 may be of value in identifying patients with atherosclerosis.

Apolipoprotein A1 (APO A1) has been reported to be a better predictor than HDL cholesterol and triglycerides for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Low levels of APO A1 in serum are associated with increased risk of CAD. The measurement of APO A1 may be of value in identifying patients with atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein B (APO B) has been reported to be a more powerful indicator of CAD than total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol in angiographic CAD and in survivors of myocardial infarction. In some patients with CAD, APO B is elevated even in the presence of normal LDL cholesterol.

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Apolipoprotein B (APO B) has been reported to be a powerful indicator of CAD. In some patients with CAD, APO B is elevated even in the presence of normal LDL cholesterol.

Apolipoprotein A1 is the primary protein associated with HDL cholesterol. Like HDL cholesterol, increased concentrations are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.

There are two major forms of Apolipoprotein B, B-100 and B-48. B-100, synthesized in the liver, is the major protein in VLDL, IDL, and LDL cholesterol. B-48, synthesized in the intestines, is essential for the assembly and secretion of chylomicrons. Patients with increased concentrations of Apolipoprotein B are at increased risk of atherosclerosis.

Apolipoprotein A1 is the primary protein associated with HDL cholesterol. Like HDL cholesterol, increased concentrations are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein B-100 is the primary protein associated with LDL cholesterol and other lipid particles. Like LDL cholesterol, increased concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The ratio of these two apolipoproteins correlates with risk of cardiovascular disease.

Low levels of fibrinogen are associated with bleeding most commonly secondary to liver disease or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Fibrinogen is an acute phase reactant and thus elevated levels may be associated with inflammation. Increased concentrations are also associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis.

To assist with control of blood glucose levels, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended glycated hemoglobin testing (HbA1c) twice a year for patients with stable glycemia, and quarterly for patients with poor glucose control. Interpretive ranges are based on ADA guidelines

An elevated concentration of Homocysteine is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Useful in predicting risk of cardiovascular disease.

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Insulin is useful in diagnosing hyperinsulinemia in hypoglycemic patients. Hyperinsulinemia may be due to an insulin-producing tumor (insulinoma), syndrome of insulin resistance, or persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy.

Elevated concentrations of Lp(a) are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease.

There is a correlation between increased risk of premature heart disease with decreasing size of LDL particles. Ion mobility offers the only direct measurement of lipoprotein particle size and concentration for each lipoprotein from HDL3 to large VLDL.

Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity

Clinical Significance

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet activating factor Acetylhydrolase, is an inflammatory enzyme that circulates bound mainly to low density lipoproteins and has been found to be localized and enriched in atherosclerotic plaques. In multiple clinical trials, Lp-PLA2 activity has been shown to be an independent predictor of coronary heart disease and stroke in the general population. Measurement of Lp-PLA2 may be used along with traditional cardiovascular risk factor measures for identifying individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular disease events. Clinical management may include beginning or intensifying risk reduction strategies. The activity assay is an enzyme assay run on an automated chemistry platform.


1. Baseline and monitoring of individuals with known CVD (acute and chronic) to determine Rx and compliance. 2. Identify patients with known CVD risk with low omega-3 levels who may be candidates for supplementation/therapy. 3. Monitor patients on omega-3 supplementation/therapy to determine efficacy of treatment. 4. Potential role in risk reduction for non-CVD outcomes-aged related macular degeneration, RA, cancer, etc. (early data).

BNP is used to aid in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction in heart failure. In contrast with BNP, a drug to treat left ventricular dysfunction does not interfere with the measurement of N-terminal pro-BNP.

Measurement of serum 25-OH vitamin D concentrations provide a good index of circulating vitamin D activity in patients not suffering from renal disease. Lower than normal 25-OH vitamin D levels can result from a dietary deficiency, poor abosrption of the vitamin or impaired metabolism of the sterol in the liver. A 25-OH vitamin D deficiency can lead to bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia. Above normal levels can lead hypercalcemia. This assay employs liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to independently measure and report the two common forms of 25-hydroxy vitamin D: 25OH D3 - the endogenous form of the vitamin and 25OH D2 - the analog form used to treat 25OH Vitamin D3 deficiency.

A complete blood count is used as a screening test for various disease states including anemia, leukemia and inflammatory processes.

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Creatine Kinase Isoenzymes is useful in the evaluation of myocardial disease. Isoenzyme MM is found in skeletal muscle whereas isoenzyme MB is increased in recent myocardial (heart) damage.

Fibrinogen is essential for the formation of a blood clot. Deficiency can produce mild to severe bleeding disorders

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Serum glucose levels may be abnormally high (hyperglycemia) or abnormally low (hypoglycemia). Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, idiopathic hypoglycemia, and pancreatic islet cell neoplasm.

Assesses long term diabetic control in diabetes mellit

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Elevated levels of homocysteine are observed in patients at risk for coronary heart disease and stroke.

C-Reactive Protein Cardiac (hs CRP) Useful in predicting risk for cardiovascular disease.


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For diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes and insulin-secreting tumors.

A lipid panel includes:Total cholesterol —this test measures all of the cholesterol in all the lipoprotein particles.High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) — measures the cholesterol in HDL particles; often called "good cholesterol" because it removes excess cholesterol and carries it to the liver for removal.Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) — calculates the cholesterol in LDL particles; often called "bad cholesterol" because it deposits excess cholesterol in walls of blood vessels, which can contribute to atherosclerosis. Usually, the amount of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is calculated using the results of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and triglycerides.Triglycerides — measures all the triglycerides in all the lipoprotein particles; most is in the very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) — calculated from triglycerides/5; this formula is based on the typical composition of VLDL particles.Non-HDL-C — calculated from total cholesterol minus HDL-C.Cholesterol/HDL ratio — calculated ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C.

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Clinical Significance

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet activating factor Acetylhydrolase, is an inflammatory enzyme that circulates bound mainly to low density lipoproteins and has been found to be localized and enriched in atherosclerotic plaques. In multiple clinical trials, Lp-PLA2 activity has been shown to be an independent predictor of coronary heart disease and stroke in the general population. Measurement of Lp-PLA2 may be used along with traditional cardiovascular risk factor measures for identifying individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular disease events. Clinical management may include beginning or intensifying risk reduction strategies. The activity assay is an enzyme assay run on an automated chemistry platform.


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BNP is used to aid in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction in heart failure. In contrast with BNP, a drug to treat left ventricular dysfunction does not interfere with the measurement of N-terminal pro-BNP.

Measurement of serum 25-OH vitamin D concentrations provide a good index of circulating vitamin D activity in patients not suffering from renal disease. Lower than normal 25-OH vitamin D levels can result from a dietary deficiency, poor absorption of the vitamin or impaired metabolism of the sterol in the liver. A 25-OH vitamin D deficiency can lead to bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia. Above normal levels can lead hypercalcemia. This assay employs liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to independently measure and report the two common forms of 25-hydroxy vitamin D: 25OH D3 - the endogenous form of the vitamin and 25OH D2 - the analog form used to treat 25OH Vitamin D3 deficiency.

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The test of choice for accurate, global cardiometabolic riskstratifi cation and management• Provides comprehensive lipid analysis• Simultaneously and accurately measures cholesterol concentrations ofall 5 lipoprotein classes and their subclasses in a non-fasting patient20







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Measuring Lipid Subclasses using Ion Mobility

The way most doctors test for heart disease is with a lipid panel. It helps detect what HDL (good) and LDL (bad) cholesterol are, so hopefully you can reduce your risk of a possible cardiac event such as a heart attack. Nearly half of all heart attack patients were found to have no prior risk which would indicate they were heading toward an attack.

Quest Diagnostics offers advanced cardiovascular tests that help provide a more accurate and individualized picture of risk. The tests look beyond just HDL and LDL cholesterol to identify undiagnosed (or additional) risk.

These advanced cardiovascular tests, along with your lipid panel, will provide more information that you and your doctor can use to understand your complete cardiovascular health.

Lipid Subclasses as measured by Ion Mobility Technology

Knowing what particles make up your LDL and HDL cholesterol may be important. Ion Mobility Technology provides subclass separation that will allow your healthcare provider to identify your cardiovascular risk over time. Following the change in your lipid profile as you respond to diet, exercise and possible medication to reduce your cardiovascular risk is important. Ion Mobility provides the opportunity to determine if treatment is working and if not, optimize the aggressiveness of therapy to hopefully make a difference that can be seen in the Ion Mobility measurement and graphical representation of your LDL and HDL particles. 

Cardio IQ™ Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility 
Cardio IQ™ Lipid Panel
Cardio IQ™ Direct LDL 
Cardio IQ™ Apolipoprotein Evaluation 
Cardio IQ™ Lipoprotein (A)

Apo B

  • Apo B is a direct measurement of the number of lipoprotein particles, including LDL (“bad cholesterol”), IDL, and VLDL
  • A high Apo B number indicates increased risk for heart disease
  • Certain medications, improved eating habits, increased physical activity, and loss of body fat are some ways to
    improve Apo B

Lipoprotein (A) - Lp(a)

  • High levels of Lp(a) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke
  • Lp(a) levels may be influenced by genetics. Diet and exercise have limited to no effect on lowering Lp(a); however, certain
    medications can lower levels

Cardio IQ® Apolipoprotein Evaluation - (APOLIPOPROTEIN A1, APOLIPOPROTEIN B and APOLIPOPROTEIN B/A1 RATIO)

  • Apolipoprotein A1 is the primary protein associated with HDL cholesterol. Like HDL cholesterol, increased concentrations are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein B-100 is the primary protein associated with LDL cholesterol and other lipid particles. Like LDL cholesterol, increased concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The ratio of these two apolipoproteins correlates with risk of cardiovascular disease.

Cardio IQ Advanced Lipid Panel Plus and Inflammation Panel

Measuring Lipid Subclasses using Ion Mobility

The way most doctors test for heart disease is with a lipid panel. It helps detect what HDL (good) and LDL (bad) cholesterol are, so hopefully you can reduce your risk of a possible cardiac event such as a heart attack. Nearly half of all heart attack patients were found to have no prior risk which would indicate they were heading toward an attack.

Quest Diagnostics offers advanced cardiovascular tests that help provide a more accurate and individualized picture of risk. The tests look beyond just HDL and LDL cholesterol to identify undiagnosed (or additional) risk.

These advanced cardiovascular tests, along with your lipid panel, will provide more information that you and your doctor can use to understand your complete cardiovascular health.

Lipid Subclasses as measured by Ion Mobility Technology

Knowing what particles make up your LDL and HDL cholesterol may be important. Ion Mobility Technology provides subclass separation that will allow your healthcare provider to identify your cardiovascular risk over time. Following the change in your lipid profile as you respond to diet, exercise and possible medication to reduce your cardiovascular risk is important. Ion Mobility provides the opportunity to determine if treatment is working and if not, optimize the aggressiveness of therapy to hopefully make a difference that can be seen in the Ion Mobility measurement and graphical representation of your LDL and HDL particles. 

Cardio IQ™ Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility 

Cardio IQ™ Lipid Panel

Cardio IQ™ Direct LDL 

Cardio IQ™ Apolipoprotein Evaluation 

Cardio IQ™ Lipoprotein (A)

Apo B

  • Apo B is a direct measurement of the number of lipoprotein particles, including LDL (“bad cholesterol”), IDL, and VLDL
  • A high Apo B number indicates increased risk for heart disease
  • Certain medications, improved eating habits, increased physical activity, and loss of body fat are some ways to
    improve Apo B

Lipoprotein (A) - Lp(a)

  • High levels of Lp(a) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke
  • Lp(a) levels may be influenced by genetics. Diet and exercise have limited to no effect on lowering Lp(a); however, certain
    medications can lower levels

Cardio IQ® Apolipoprotein Evaluation - (APOLIPOPROTEIN A1, APOLIPOPROTEIN B and APOLIPOPROTEIN B/A1 RATIO)

  • Apolipoprotein A1 is the primary protein associated with HDL cholesterol. Like HDL cholesterol, increased concentrations are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein B-100 is the primary protein associated with LDL cholesterol and other lipid particles. Like LDL cholesterol, increased concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The ratio of these two apolipoproteins correlates with risk of cardiovascular disease.

 

Inflammation Panel

 

hs-CRP

  • High levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP) indicate inflammation due to infection or tissue injury
  • Modestly elevated CRP levels may be associated with increased heart disease risk. If both CRP and Lp-PLA2 levels are
    high, your risk for a heart attack or stroke increases significantly
  • Certain medications and food may have anti-inflammatory benefits

 

Lp-PLA2

  • High levels of Lp-PLA2 can predict risk of a heart attack or stroke
  • When both Lp-PLA2 levels and systolic blood pressure are high, stroke risk increases significantly
  • Certain medications can reduce levels of Lp-PLA2